William Benjamin Carpenter
(Wikipedia, Creative Commons)
12 subjects top, 14 below, 13 slots
Subjects move in opposite directions
Warm Work for Blackey. London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co.
From Daedaleum to Zoetrope, ' ... the most wonderful antics that ever a nightmare invented to puzzle the brain.'
In the 1868 article 'The Zoetrope and its Antecedents' - still the most important investigation of zoetropical effects - Royal Society Vice-President William B. Carpenter (1813-1885) minutely examines the perceptual processes involved, but also describes quite complex techniques, later adopted by film animators. Acceleration and deceleration of a football is successfully achieved: 'the suddenness of the jerk of the ball upwards, contrasted with the uniformity of its onward progress and descent, is admirably represented...' .39 He notes the technique of altering an object's size, to give an impression of changing distance: 'balls appear to roll down an inclined plain ... the notion of their approach towards the spectator as they fall is entirely due to the suggestion conveyed by a consecutive increase in the actual sizes of the figures of the balls...'.40 A wide range of effects could be produced by the device, and these were attained by those Victorian animators who understood the principles or 'rules'.Rules of Zoetropical Motion
* The same number of images as slots, and the images will animate in a fixed position, but will not drift (progress or regress) in the drum.
The number of slots is the median number, and the greater the difference between number of images and slots, the more extreme the speed of drifting.41
Clarke's depiction of the head-swapping subject
described by Hopwood. One version of this
was entitled French Revolution, a joke
referring to the subjects losing their heads, and perhaps
also a pun on the revolving zoetrope and 'revolution'.
By using subjects with different numbers of components on a single strip, surprising effects could be obtained. One reviewer noted: 'Strange to say ... with fourteen figures on the top [of the strip] and 12 below ... the figures all move in contrary directions.'42 and, as with some examples of the earlier phenakistiscope discs, the variations were widely exploited. Early historian of motion pictures Henry Hopwood described an example in Living Pictures (1899):
The bodies, being equal in number to the slots, appear to remain in the same place although legs and arms are in motion. But the number of heads being one less than the slots, the whole series [of heads] appears to have a slow motion in the reverse direction to that in which the Zoëtrope is turning. The effect is therefore that of a row of dancing figures, perpetually trying on heads and then passing them to their neighbours, who repeat the same antics.43
The zoetrope's exterior was of a dark colour, to ensure that images viewed momentarily through the slots were not 'washed out' by a bright 'blanking' period. Ideally the interior needed to be white, to reflect light onto the pictures below. As with its disc predecessors good illumination was of key importance, and not always easy to arrange in an era of oil and gas lighting. Unlike later motion picture systems that stopped each picture briefly for viewing, zoetrope pictures were always in horizontal motion across the field of vision when viewed, so the sharpness of the image depended on the width of the slots. Wide slots gave a bright but blurred result; narrow slots produced a sharp but dim image. Ensuring an acceptable compromise was important.
Very soon after the appearance of the zoetrope in England, the British Journal of Photography suggested the possibilities for photographic subjects, and an improved version for transparent pictures illuminated by 'instantaneous electricity' (intermittent flashes) to eliminate blurring.44
The London Stereoscopic Company and its rivals
In 1867 the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company, under license from Milton Bradley - the LS&PC claimed to be Sole Licensees with Royal Letters Patent - launched a large zoetrope with a steel drum at one guinea (one pound and one shilling); more than a week's wages for many working men. Despite the high price, surviving numbers indicate good sales to the more wealthy.
Cut-out zoetrope by H.G. Clarke of London
|H.G. Clarke of Garrick Street, London, a publisher of penny cutout paper models, sold inexpensive amusing sets of strips, some 108 in all plus 30 base discs, with some subjects similar to those of the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company.45 Clarke issued a paper sheet with instructions on how to create a zoetrope, and also sold a ready-made version.46 Indeed, Clarke later claimed to be the first to introduce the zoetrope in England, in July 1867.47 By late 1867 when the Great Zoetrope with 'life-sized figures' appeared at Crystal Palace Concert Hall, zoetropes were a popular craze.48 At the height of their popularity the income from these philosophical 'toys' was significant for their manufacturers and evidently worth protecting; the LS&P Co. instigated court proceedings in 1867-69 to curb the activities of importers of American-made zoetropes.49 The drama unfolds in the advertisement on the front page of The Times for more than a year, with several traders advertising imported or improved zoetropes at various prices, and at one stage the LS&PC cautions that it has four actions pending. One of the 'infringers' was H. Jewitt & Co., importers, of Leighton Rd, N.W. London, who were selling imported Milton and Bradley zoetropes.50 On 12 December 1867, the case of Nottage [LS&PC] v. Jewitt was first heard in the Vice-Chancellor's Court.51 If proceeded with, accounts of the outcome of this battle no doubt reside in court records and newspaper reports, and would make an interesting separate study. In May 1868, the LS&PC advertised a new, cheaper model to undercut the prices of its rivals.52|
The tread-wheel, Coldbath Fields Prison
The Mysteries of London, George W.M. Reynolds
At least one periodical satirized the term 'Wheel of Life', The Tomahawk publishing a morbid comment in April 1868: 'Successes generally have sequels. The Zoetrope was a success, yet the London Stereoscopic Company have unaccountably neglected to patent a Wheel of Death. Perhaps the prison in Coldbath Fields may supply them with a hint.'53 This was a reference to the prison's notorious use of the treadmill.54 Mayhew records: 'there are at Coldbath Fields no less than six distinct tread-wheel yards, and two of these have each four separate wheels working on one long axis, whilst the four remaining yards have each three wheels fixed upon one axle.'55 Another form of punishment at Coldbath also featured a circularity that echoes our subject: 'The "crank" was a handle attached to a revolving drum with a counter that clocked up the revolutions. You would be made to place both hands on the handle and turn it, and turn it, and turn it! Sometimes for periods of eight hours a day. ... Many prisoners were driven to insanity...'56
(Animation: Josie Rombouts)
In 1870 the LS&PC published a set of 12 strips by caricaturist and book illustrator George Cruikshank (1792-1878), now best known as the illustrator of Dickens's Oliver Twist. Roley Poley Man is shown here. Film historian David Robinson lists these strips and writes that the famous illustrator evidently 'enjoyed the challenge. ... The pop-eyed owl with an umbrella in Out for a Day is more characterful than many a comedy figure in fully developed film cartoons'.57 Other artists responsible for these ingenious animations were anonymous. Some of these sequences repeat seamlessly, in others there is a break as the action stops and re-starts. Instructions were given for the optimum speed and direction of rotation for individual animations, which also suggested that if two strips were overlapped, a change of subject - back and forth - could be introduced; an effect similar to later motion picture editing.58 Some 84 strips and 12 bases were eventually published.59
Zoetrope artwork by Clarke, the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Co., and the French manufacturer Delacour and Bakes included paper discs for the zoetrope base, the images often comprising abstract geometrical shapes of expanding stars or tumbling balls, and the dazzling, at times hypnotic results add greatly to the general effect.60
Promotional leaflet, zoetrope strips by Delacour and Bakes.
[Detail] (Collection François Binétruy)
Satirical subjects in France In December 1868, the Daily Register (Hudson, NY, USA) printed a paragraph about the zoetrope, noting: 'Introduced during the last year, it has already had an enormous sale in this country, and is being introduced generally in Europe. The Figaro, a French daily journal, has alone ordered five thousand as gifts to its patrons.'61 Political and social satire featured in several strips provided by Le Figaro from April 1868, which according to promotional material were to be used with the 'Zootrope - Cercle Magique' of Delacour & Bakes; probably manufactured by that company under licence.62
Satirical subjects in France
In December 1868, the Daily Register (Hudson, NY, USA) printed a paragraph about the zoetrope, noting: 'Introduced during the last year, it has already had an enormous sale in this country, and is being introduced generally in Europe. The Figaro, a French daily journal, has alone ordered five thousand as gifts to its patrons.'61 Political and social satire featured in several strips provided by Le Figaro from April 1868, which according to promotional material were to be used with the 'Zootrope - Cercle Magique' of Delacour & Bakes; probably manufactured by that company under licence.62Caricatures from French society
Albert Wolff, Le Figaro's art critic and editor, 'opens a box of surprises', and the colourful writer and duelist Henri Rochefort, one-time writer for the paper who in 1868 was imprisoned for political views published in his own journal La Lanterne, shines a light from a lantern. Jean Hippolyte Auguste Delaunay de Villemessant, was publisher of Le Figaro. Jacques Offenbach, the influential composer and cellist and one of the originators of the operetta - his own examples combined political and cultural satire with witty grand opera parodies - is best known for his opera The Tales of Hoffmann.
The gentleman on the velocipede (or boneshaker bicycle) is Adrien Marx, 'a young and forward Parisian journalist', who was a contributor to Le Figaro.63 Marx also wrote an introduction to Jules Verne's Around the World in 80 Days. Mademoiselle Thérésa is no doubt Teresa Carreno (1853-1917), a celebrated young pianist, who made her Paris debut in 1866. These large-head caricatures of well-known figures in the arts and literature field were perhaps a unique example of the medium depicting real, and contemporary, people.
The youth being chased by a gendarme is Rocambole, who was the protagonist in a series of stories by Pierre Alexis Ponson du Terrail (1829-1871) first published in daily newspapers between 1857 and 1870, and most likely the first character from popular fiction to feature in a cartoon 'movie'.
Science and the zoetrope
Maxwell's lensed Zoetrope
|Although chiefly a drawing-room toy for simple amusement, the zoetrope continued to interest the scientific world. Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), who had made phenakistiscope discs as a child, devised a zoetrope with a ring of concave lenses instead of slots, described in 1869. The virtual image was formed exactly midway between lens and picture - at the axis of rotation. The effect was to momentarily 'stop' each image optically, producing a less blurred result, and without the usual squashing. He used this zoetrope to demonstrate sequence diagrams of phenomena such as smoke rings. The announcement in Le Cosmos listed several others, including Movement of vibrating strings of the harp, violin, and piano and Movement of a jet of water supporting a turning sphere.64 His zoetrope was never marketed, but a lensed zoetrope with hand-drawn figures survives.65 Other suggestions for the use of the zoetrope for scientific purposes include another study of wave motion,66 and Edmund Sanford of Clark University notes and cites experiments in visual perception.67|
Zoetrope of c1880, with picture strip
of Muybridge horse and rider sequence
The horse in motion, the bird in flight
Around 1879 Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) made a double zoetrope for viewing his stereoscopic photographic pairs of sequence pictures. Although his photographs were then basically silhouettes, he later claimed that with this device he was able to see a dimensional image of the horse in motion.68 The success of synthesising Muybridge's sequences in a conventional zoetrope was declared 'a complete test of the accuracy of the analysis'.69 In the 1880s several publishers produced zoetrope strips of Muybridge's groundbreaking horse sequences, printed in silhouette. McAllister's of New York offered a set of 12, featuring horses progressing at various speeds, and other animals, for one dollar.70
Zoetrope strips by Bertalan Székely,
based on Marey's sequence photographs
Engraving of Marey's zoetrope
(The Projection Box)
About the same time Hungarian academic Bertalan Székely produced many hand-painted strips based on sequences by Muybridge and by Etienne-Jules Marey, for demonstration purposes.71 Eadweard Muybridge's sequence photography inspired Prussian photographer Ottomar Anchütz (1846-1907) to make his own series of people and animals in motion, and Anschütz devised and later marketed ingenious zoetropes with patented improvements in which to view them.72In three dimensions
Several early zoetrope experimenters, including Horner, Purkinje, Desvignes, and Lincoln, suggested using solid models, to give a lifelike dimensional result.73 Physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey had photographed sequences of birds in flight in order to analyse their wing movements. To re-synthesise the motion, in 1887 he constructed a large zoetrope with plaster bird models based on his photographs.74
The zoetrope as shared public entertainment
The advertisements by the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company claimed 'a child may exhibit it to a party of 100 or more...'.75 This suggests a possibility not previously explored; that the standard commercial zoetrope could be used outside the domestic drawing-room environment, as a public entertainment for a fairly large audience.76 The zoetrope is listed with a magic lantern and Punch & Judy exhibition as entertainments for 800 children at a tea in Ipswich Town Hall.77 Digital newspaper searches have recently revealed some use of this kind for charity fund raising, in New Zealand. Although optical attractions such as the Cosmorama peepshow and magic lantern presentations were a feature of permanent arcades, optical instruments were shown at conversaziones, and 19th-century visual attractions were a feature of charity bazaars 78 in Britain, Ireland, and the Empire, I am not aware of any directly comparable examples of animated picture devices at bazaars being noted in modern research accounts; e.g. Science in the Marketplace.79.
Milton Bradley advertisement, suggesting that
a large audience would be possible
The residents of New Zealand would have read about the zoetrope in their newspapers. As early as 29 February 1868, the Nelson Examiner included a description: 'A New Optical Toy', quoting a 'clip from the London correspondence of the Sydney Morning Herald' concerning 'a curious optical toy which has lately been invented. It is called 'The Wheel of Life'. [The name zoetrope is not mentioned.] [It] ... holds the juvenile world in awe, and elderly people regard it with interest. It comes from America'. The figures are described as ' ... going through the most wonderful antics as ever a nightmare invented to puzzle the brain.' The original writer also notes, cynically but perhaps perceptively: 'To secure for this novelty a wider notoriety, legal proceedings have been instigated against an imitator, and an exhibition has taken place of the marvellous toy in the presence of her Majesty's Judges.'80
As these New Zealand newspaper reports and advertisements seem to be the only known records of zoetrope 'shows' being given for paid public entertainment, this phenomenon is examined in some detail on our page Community Zoetropes in New Zealand.
'Zoetrope' - in disc form
Shortly after the introduction of the table zoetrope, the newly invented projection phenakistiscope mechanical slide, also called the Wheel of Life, would be able to project similar effects onto a large screen, using a standard magic lantern. In July 1868 (and possibly earlier) Professor John Henry Pepper of London's Royal Polytechnic advertised the 'last popular invention called The Zoetrope, or Wheel of Life, which, with the aid of Mr. Pilcher, will be projected on the Disc [screen]'. Most likely this was actually a Wheel of Life type mechanical disc slide, rather than the drum form.81 Pepper also showed a large phenakistiscope disc set up on the stage, and illuminated by a strobe to produce the animated effects by direct viewing. Using a disc arrangement was more convenient than using a drum. Muybridge's zoöpraxiscope for large screen projection in the 1880s and '90s was referred to as a 'magic-lantern zoetrope', even though his machine used a glass disc - the term zoetrope rather than phenakistiscope would have been better understood by the public.82
With technical development starting immediately after the introduction of the device, advanced versions of the zoetrope genre, some being sufficiently altered to require new names, soon appeared on the market. From 1877, the praxinoscope of Charles-Emile Reynaud (1844-1918) provided an alternative method of viewing short animated sequences. The optical compensation provided by the central ring of mirrors gave a sharper result than slotted discs or drums, and without the shapes of the animated characters being distorted. Reynaud's own charming watercolours of simple yet effective animations were the basis for the chromolithographed strips. The boxed praxinoscope theatre used reflected backgrounds to add another dimension to the scenes, and the projection praxinoscope version was able to beam those scenes onto a screen - a miniature domestic version of Reynaud's Théatre Optique, but with the very short duration of the motion (a brief action continuously repeating) limiting any narrative development.83 Another technical variation on the toy zoetrope, W.C. Farnum's viviscope, with intermittent rather than continuous movement of the picture strip, was marketed in 1895 but not widely sold. The subjects were similar to those of the zoetrope.84
(Collection Richard Balzer)
Some late 19th-century commercial zoetropes are illustrated by Georg Füsslin.85 Smaller versions were available from at least 1869.86 Towards the end of the century, Europe's toy industries produced large numbers of small cheap zoetropes with basic strips. One French version, L'Animateur, had only four slots, with the pictures arranged on a paper 'cross' shape. This gave a shorter duration, less fluid motion effect.87
Several 1890s pioneers of cinematography had an early interest in the zoetrope, including Wordsworth Donisthorpe,88 and Birt Acres.89 The Edison peepshow kinetoscope is arguably a photographic zoetrope (non-intermittent motion picture viewer), with an arrangement for long loops, but movement no longer continued seamlessly; there was always a break in the action before it was repeated.90
Although the advent of cinematography provided the public with longer, more detailed and more sophisticated moving images, the zoetrope tenaciously resisted retirement, with versions to be found in toyshops to the present day. In recent times, fast food chains McDonalds and Wendy have produced millions of zoetropes as promotional toys. The visual effect created by the zoetrope has been used since the 1990s to create animated GIFs for the web, and artists have expanded the potential with the linear zoetrope and electronic strobe versions.91 The zoetrope still fascinates: as one recent captivated user declared, 'It's like going to the cinema - but it gets to the point quicker'.
Stephen HerbertBack to The Wheel of Life
39. Carpenter 1868, 28. "↩"
40. Carpenter 1868, 30. "↩"
41. Adapted from George Hall's website. Rules of Zoetropical Motion.
42. Anon. 1868d, 3. "↩"
43. Hopwood 1899, 23. "↩"
44. Woodbury 1868, 17. "↩"
45. Details of Clarke's zoetrope strips from Clarke's advertising material of the period, provided by Martin Gilbert and Lester Smith. David Robinson (1991) states that 'the majority of his bands were shamelessly pirated from the London Stereoscopic Company'. "↩"
46. The Times. The same page includes another advertisement for a zoetrope: 'This is the genuine article, direct from America. Beware of spurious imitations … E. Bell's model dockyard, No. 31 Fleet-street. "↩"
47. Robinson 1991, 14. "↩"
48. The Crystal Palace Great Zoetrope, 'exhibited daily by permission of the London Stereoscopic Company', was advertised for several months, from late 1867 until Spring 1868. Crystal Palace. The Times 2 December 1867; 27 December 1867; 13 April 1868. Beaver, 1970, 105, writes that the ' ... huge zoetrope, turned by a gas engine, was installed which showed a programme that included the Conjuror, the Acrobat, the Umbrella Man and Jim Crow'. Despite refeences to this giant zoetrope by William Lincoln himself, and the advertisements in newspapers of the time - it seems to have run for at least a season - further details of this attraction are frustratingly elusive. Surely it would have been a great subject for an illustrator? But no images have been found, and next to nothing is known. A much earlier giant zoetrope, 18 feet in diameter and predating the first commercial versions of the domestic device, was apparently to be seen in Frankfurt; details were published in 1857 and are cited by Liesegang (ed. Hecht) 1986, 28: Zimmerman. 1857, 178. "↩"
49. London Stereoscopic & Photographic Company advertisement warning that proceedings will be taken against anyone else offering the zoetrope for sale, 27 November. A stronger caution was made on 4 December. "↩"
50. Anon. 1867b, 1; Rose 1867. "↩"
51. Nottage v. Jewitt, The Times 13 December 1867. On 13 December Jewitt advertised again in The Times, contesting the claims of the LS&PC. A provisional patent dated 8 November 1867 names both H. Jewitt and W.W. Rose. Other advertisers in The Times, some apparently selling imported zoetropes manufactured by Milton and Bradley, include E. Bell of Fleet Street, 26 December 1867 and 8 January 1868, and M. Drukker of London Wall, 24 February 1868. See also (Anon. 1868c). "↩"
52. The Times, 15 May 1868, 1. This still featured the superior metal cylinder, but now had an 'ornamental metal stand' instead of a turned wooden base. At just 12s.6d., the price had been almost halved (from twenty-one shillings), undercutting the Milton and Bradley cardboard-drum version imported into Britain by Jewitt and others. "↩"
53. Anon. 1868, 146. "↩"
54. Coldbath Fields Prison forced its inmates to man the multi-section treadmills, which had been installed in 1822. In March 1877 a fire started in the bakehouse which destroyed the treadmills. "↩" 54.
55. Mayhew, Henry, and John Binny, The Criminal Prisons of London and Scenes of London Life (Griffin, Bohn & Co., 1862) p.282. "↩"
56. 'Barry Oneoff' [pseudonym], Crime and punishment in Victorian times.http://barryoneoff.co.uk/html/prisons.html "↩"
57. Robinson 1991, 14-16, and colour plates. "↩"
58. Dulac and Gaudreault 2007, 236. "↩"
59. Robinson 1991, 12-14. "↩"
60. Clarke described them in his advertisements as 'beautiful Chromatropes'. Picture discs for placing in the base of a zoetrope, published by Clarke & Co. and by the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company, are illustrated in: Mannoni, Laurent. 1995, 77, and 275-280. "↩"
61. Anon. 1868h, 2. "↩"
62. Details from a publicity flyer for the zoetrope and strips, in the François Binétruy collection. For photographs of many types of zoetropes, see:
63. Anon. 1886. "↩"
64. Anon. 1869, 585-586. "↩"
65. Maxwell's zoetrope, which still exists, and five surviving strips (three featuring entertainment subjects, and two scientific subjects) are illustrated in: Appleyard. 1926, 82-83. "↩"
66. Woodward 1873, 506. "↩"
67. Sanford 1898, 311-313. "↩"
68. Muybridge 1899, Preface. "↩"
69. Rogers 1879, 2. "↩"
70. For details of Muybridge and the Zoetrope see: Projecting the Living image, in: Stephen Herbert (ed.) 2004, 107-163. Also: http://www.stephenherbert.co.uk/muybZOETROPES.htm [accessed 3 February 2011].And:
71. Prodger 2003, 158, 164-166; Mannoni 2006, 79-90. "↩"
72. Rossell, 1997, 27-28. With some of Anschütz's devices (which could be arranged both vertically and horizontally) the slots were in the actual strip rather than in the (shallow) drum, enabling variations in the number and spacing of slots; especially useful with the photographic subjects that Anschütz used. "↩"
73. Liesegang (ed Hecht 1986) page 28, suggests that Czermák had achieved this, and cites: Kinotechnik. 1855. 1920 Vol. 2, 213. "↩"
74. Marey, 1890, 181. "↩"
75. WHEEL OF LIFE, LS&PC advertisement, The Times, 3 February 1869, 6. "↩"
76. The WHEEL OF LIFE LS&PC full column advertisement in The Times, 3 February 1869, 6, included the suggestion: 'Every Bazaar held for charitable purposes should have them.' "↩"
77. Anon. 1868b, 9. "↩"
78. Rains, 2007. "↩"
79. Fyfe and Lightman, 2007. For general details of charity bazaars, see Prochaska, 1977. Bazaars would later include cinematograph shows, as noted by Rains, 2007. "↩"
80. Anon. 1868d, 3. "↩"
81. Pepper's lecture was entitled 'Faraday's Optical Experiments with Cogged Wheels'. Polytechnic programme for 20 July 1868. Details provided by Jeremy Brooker. "↩"
82. Herbert, 2004, 108. "↩"
83. For Reynaud's biography, descriptions and illustrations of the various models of the praxinoscope, and the Théatre Optique, see: Auzel 1992. "↩"
84. Hecht 1993, Entry 415G, 291. A photograph of the Viviscope is reproduced in Ceram 1965, 70. "↩"
85. 1993, 61-63. "↩"
86. Examples from this period exist in several collections. A miniature zoetrope for 75c. was advertised in Canada (e.g. 31 March 1869, the Unionist and Halifax Journal, 3.) This was possibly the Milton Bradley version with 4-inch diameter drum, an example of which is in the Dick Balzer collection, item 0570. "↩"
87. Illustrated in the The Ganz Collection. Magic Lanterns, Optical Toys, and Pre-Cinema. London: Christie's South Kensington catalogue, 22 January 2007, 42. "↩"
88. Donisthorpe's examiner for the Cambridge Tripos in 1869 was James Clerk Maxwell, who set a question about the zoetrope. Donisthorpe's 1876 British patent for a sequence camera (no. 4,344) suggested that 'Prints from the negatives may be mounted in series and viewed in the zoetrope.' Hopwood 1899, 237. "↩"
89. Herbert, 2006. "↩"
90. Tietjen 2011, 15-22. "↩"
91. See the 'Modern times' section of the Zoetrope entry on Wikipedia.
See also NEWSPAPERS, below
Anon. 1862. International exhibition. 1862. Medals and honourable mentions awarded by the international Juries, with a list of jurors, and the report of the Council of Chairmen London: Printed for Her Majesty's Commissioners by George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode.
Anon. 1868. The Week. The Tomahawk. 11 April.
Anon. 1869. Zootrope perfectionné de M. Clerk-Maxwell. Le Cosmos, Vol. 20.
Appleyard, R. 1926. Pioneers of Electrical Communication - James Clerk Maxwell - 1. Electrical Communication, Vol.5 No. 2, October.
Auzel, Dominique. 1992. Emile Reynaud et l'image s'anima. Paris: éditions du May.
Beaver, Patrick. 1970. Crystal Palace, 1831-1936: A Portrait of Victorian Enterprise. London: Hugh Evelyn.
Bradley, Milton. [Hallett, H.W.] 1867. British Patent no.629. 6 March.
Bradley, Milton and Co., Advertisement 1868. / Scientific American 9 December, Vol. 19 No. 24, 375.Carpenter, William B. 1868. On the Zoetope and its Antecedents. The Student and Intellectual Observer of Science, Literature and Art, Vol. 2, London: Groombridge and Sons, [Bound volume of periodicals, title page dated 1869]. Reprinted in: Herbert, Stephen. 2000. A History of Pre-Cinema, London: Routledge.
Ceram, C.W. 1965. Archaeology of the Cinema. London: Thames & Hudson.
Chambers, Ephraim (ed.). 1868. Zoetrope. Chambers's Encyclopĺdia. Vol. 10. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers & Co.
Czermak, Johann N. 1879. Das Stereophoroskop, 1855. In: Gesammelte Schriften, Erster Band: Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 299-302. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.
Curtis, Theodore A. 1876. US Patent no.184847 [zoetrope as packaging]. 28 November.
Desvignes, Peter Hubert. 1860. British Patent no.537. 27 February.
Dulac, Nicolas and André Gaudreault. 2004. Heads or Tails, The Emergence of a New Cultural Series, from the Phenakisticope to the Cinematograph. Invisible Culture: An Electronic Journal for Visual Culture.
Dulac, Nicolas and André Gaudreault. 2007. Circularity and Repetition at the Heart of the Attraction: Optical Toys and the Emergence of a New Cultural Series. In W. Strauven, (ed.) The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Füsslin, Georg. 1993. Optisches Spielzeug Oder Wei Bilder Laufen Lernten. Stuttgart: Verlag Georg Fusslin.
Fyfe, Aileen, and Bernard Lightman. 2007. Science in the Marketplace. Nineteenth-Century Sites and Experiences. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Gilbert, W.S. [n.d.] Fifty 'Bab' Ballads. London: George Routledge & Sons.
Gosser, H. Mark. 1977. Selected Attempts at Stereoscopic Moving Pictures and their Relationship to the Development of Motion Picture Technology, 1852-1903. New York: Arno Press.
Hall, George. 2010. Zoetrope Renaissance. How L’Affirmatrope was Invented. Jerome, Arizona: Rutherford House.
Hallett, Henry Watson. [Bradley, Milton] 1867. British Patent no.629. 6 March.
Hecht, Hermann. 1993. Pre-Cinema History, An Encyclopaedia and Annotated Bibliography of the Moving Image Before 1896.
Herbert, Stephen. 2000. A History of Pre-Cinema. London: Routledge.
Herbert, Stephen. 2004. Projecting the Living Image. In Eadweard Muybridge, the Kingston Museum Bequest. Hastings: The Projection Box.
Herbert, Stephen. 2006. Acres, Birt (1854?-1918). First published Oct 2006, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/42126
Hopwood, Henry V. 1899. Living Pictures, their History, Photo-production and Practical Working. London: The Optician & Photographic Trades Review.
Horner, William George. 1834. On the Properties of the Daedaleum, a new Instrument of Optical Illusion. The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, January, Vol. 4.
Hunt, Robert. 1862. Handbook to the Industrial Department of the International Exhibition, 1862. Vol. 2. London: Edward Stanford.
Laing, James. 1864. On the Motoroscope. Proceedings of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, Vol. 6.
Liesegang, Franz Paul (tr. and ed. by Hermann Hecht). (1986). Dates and Sources. A Contribution to the History of the Art of Projection and to Cinematography. Magic Lantern Society.
Lincoln, William E. [Assignor to Milton Bradley & Co.] 1867. US Patent no.64117. 23 April.
Lincoln, William Ensign. 1930. Some Descendants of Stephen Lincoln of Wymondham, England. Edward Larkin from England. Thomas Oliver of Bristol, England. Michael Pearce of London, England. Robert Wheaton of Swansea, Wales. George Burrill of Boston, England. John Porter of Dorset, England. John Ayer of Norwich, England, and Notes of Related Families. New York: Printed for the author, The Knickerbocker Press.
Mannoni, Laurent. 1995. Le Mouvement Continué. Paris: Cinémathèque Française.
Mannoni, Laurent, (trans. and ed. Richard Crangle). 2000. The Great Art of Light and Shadow. Exeter: Exeter University Press.
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