Eadweard Muybridge

TIMELINE 1:
Life & Work - Photography - Chronophotography & Motion Pictures - World Events

A comparative timeline of events in the life and work of Eadweard Muybridge, and his world.

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Year Life and Work Photography Chronophotography
& Motion Pictures
Science & Technology World Events
1830 Edward James Muggeridge is born During 1820s J.N. Nièpce develops heliography, first photographic process Etienne-Jules Marey is born First functional sewing machine patent issued, Barthelemy Thimonnier. July Revolution, Paris. Kingdom of Belgium founded.
1833
Charles Wheatstone invents the stereoscope about this time Phenakistiscope and Stroboscope moving picture devices first shown J.C.F. Gauss constructs electromagnetic telegraph Abolition of slavery in British Empire
1834
Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using paper soaked in silver chloride, fixed with salt solution W.G. Horner devises Daedaleum (later known as Zoetrope) Charles Babbage designs 'Analytic Engine'. Augusta Lovelace writes first computer program French Foreign Legion is founded
1837
L.J-M. Daguerre creates daguerreotype process
Thomas Davenport uses electric motor to power workshop machinery Canada gives blacks the right to vote
1841 1841 UK Census. Kingston upon Thames, 'Townsend': John Muggeridge Corn Dealer Age 35. Susannah, 30. John Muggeridge, 14. Edward, 11. George, 8. Thomas, 6. Henry Fox Talbot patents 'calotype' Purkinje introduces the Phorolyt (Phenakistiscope) with drawings from life, and posed photo sequences John Rand awarded patent for collapsible tube (for paint, later toothpaste etc.) China cedes Hong Kong to British
1851 Emigrates to USA 1850, becomes bookseller in New York Queen Victorian admires stereoscope at Great Exhibition, London. Photographic lantern slides introduced about this time. Frederick Scott Archer introduces wet plate process. Uchatius makes improved moving image projector, c.1851-53 Colt's repeating pistol, Goodyear's vulcanized rubber, shown at Great Exhibition, London Great Exhibition, London
1855 Settles in San Francisco, becomes Muygridge, then Muybridge Roger Fenton photographs Crimean War
William S. Burroughs patents adding machine that prints lists of added numbers US adventurerWilliam Walker seizes power in Nicaragua
1858 Shows steel engravings and illustrated books at Mechanics' Fair, San Francisco First composite photograph, by Henry Peach Robinson
August Ferdinand Möbius invents the 'Möbius strip.' Moghul Empire collapses
1860 Stagecoach accident on return to England. Apparently learns photography while recovering. Queen Victoria photographed by J.J.E. Mayall, Abraham Lincoln photographed by Mathew Brady Pierre H. Desvignes patents several designs for his Mimoscope (daedaleum / zoetrope variations) 1860 Repeating rifle, later known as the Winchester, developed Civil War starts (USA)
1861 Invents washing machine. Spends time in Paris, c.1862 James Clerk-Maxwell (Britain) demonstrates colour photography (by projection). Mathew B. Brady (USA) and staff photograph American Civil War W.T.Shaw's Stereotrope and Coleman Sellers' Kinematoscope: machines for viewing stereo motion sequences Linus Yale invents the cylinder lock. Jefferson Davis approves a bill declaring War between US & Confederacy
1865 Director of Ottoman Company and Bank of Turkey
(They fail following year.)
Photographs and photo negatives are added to protected works under copyright (UK or US?) James Laing shows his Motoroscope, stereo motion sequence viewer Web Offset Printing, William Bullock End of Civil War (USA)
1866 Returns to San Francisco, sets up as photographer The Cabinet Card (5.5 x 4 inches) becomes popular in Great Britain, spreads worldwide. L.S. Beale's Choreutoscope: mechanical slide for intermittent image projection First Atlantic cable laid Immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sinks in Liverpool; 738 die
1867 Spends months in Yosemite, photographing
William Lincoln patents (and names) Zoetrope Alfred Nobel invents dynamite 1867 Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
1868 Photographic trip to Alaska Alexander Gardner completes Union Pacific Railroad portfolio, Across the Continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad J.B. Linnet's Kineograph (flip book) patented J. P. Knight invents traffic lights. Boshin War in Japan
1869 Invents 'sky shade' device Louis Ducos du Hauron's Les Couleurs en Photographie, Solution du Probleme proposes the subtractive colour process O.B. Brown patents intermittent motion projection device Dmitri Mendeleev publishes the Periodic Table of the Elements Suez Canal opens
1870 Photographs 'Chinese Giant' at Woodward's Gardens Collotype or photogelatin printing invented by Joseph Albert H.R. Heyl's phasmatrope, projection of repeating sequence of posed photographic images Gustavus Dows patents modern soda fountain. Franco-Prussian War starts
1871 Marries Flora Shallcross Stone Richard Leach Maddox proposes 'dry plate' process Ross 'wheel of life' mechanical lantern slide The Descent of Man: Darwin suggests difference between humans and animals is one of degree and not of kind Paris Commune. Unification of Germany
1872 Takes instantaneous horse photograph at Sacramento racetrack, for Leland Stanford

Luther Childs Crowell files patent for paper bag making machine Victoria Woodhull becomes 1st woman nominated for US president
1873 Photographs Modoc Indians, and Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads. Floredo Muybridge born John Wesley Hyatt trademarks the name "celluloid" in U.S. and Great Britain
Christopher Latham Sholes improved typewriter produced First Spanish Republic established
1874 Shoots Harry Larkyns dead Transit of Venus photographed using Krone's Auckland dry process P.J.C. Janssen makes sequence camera, solar photography Captain James Buchanan Eads finishes structural steel bridge, St Louis (USA) First Republic of Spain overthrown, Alfonso XII becomes King
1875 Acquitted of murder, travels to Central America. Flora dies

Edison invents Mimeograph (duplicator) Civil Rights Act (USA). Ignored in the South
1876 Central America photos awarded Gold Medal, Eleventh Industrial Exhibition, San Francisco F. Hurter & V. C. Driffield begin systematic evaluation of sensitivity characteristics of photographic emulsions W. Donisthorpe patents, builds sequence camera (multiple plates) Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, USA.
1877 Photographs Stanford horse 'Occident' again. George Eastman begins study of photography Emile Reynaud patents/produces Praxinoscope Edison invents phonograph Queen Victoria assumes title of Empress of India
1878 First serial photographs horses and other animals, at Stanford's Palo Alto farm English photographers including Charles Bennett improve gelatin dry plate process
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan invents a practical electric lightbulb Congress of Berlin: European powers meet to thwart Russia
1879 More series photographs taken at Palo Alto, including athletes Local scandal as Lewis Carroll (Rev. Charles Dodgson) photographs young girls nude
Edison perfects incandescent light bulb Zulu War
1880 Zoogyroscope (later Zoopraxiscope) used in public lectures George Eastman sets up Eastman Dry Plate Company, Rochester USA
R.G. Rhodes develops primitive hearing aid South African War starts
1881 Attitudes of Animals in Motion album 'published'. Lectures in France Frederick E. Ives invents process for colour photo reproduction
Lucian Galard, John D. Gibbs obtain patents for systems of alternating electrical current. Tunisian War starts
1882 Now 'Eadweard', lectures in London and New York Antoine Lumiere founds Lumiere and Sons, manufacturing photographic gelatin dry plates E-J. Marey builds 'rifle' sequence camera, revolving plate - sets up Physiological Station Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler develops electric fan Triple Alliance formed: Germany, Austria, Italy
1883 Lectures in New York, Philadelphia, and Massachusetts
Albert Londe constructs 9-lens sequence camera De Laval invents steam turbine Sino-French War starts
1884 Begins sequence photography, University of Pennsylvania Eastman paper roll film manufactured Ottomar Anschutz takes chronophotographic sequences L.N. Thompson builds Switchback roller coaster Berlin Conference on African affairs and slavery
1885 Sequence photography mostly finished First photograph of a meteor shower is taken Le Prince begins work on his motion picture experiments Karl Benz (Germany) first to sell motor cars Partition of the island of New Guinea
1887 Animal Locomotion (781 plates) published Hannibal W. Goodwin patents celluloid roll film. Flashlight powder invented Ottomar Anschutz Electrotachyscope exhibited C.V. Boys describes concept of guiding light through glass fibres Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee
1888 Visits Edison, discusses joining Zoopraxiscope with phonograph First Kodak camera, for paper roll film Le Prince takes 'motion pictures' on paper film, Marey chronophotographs now on roll film John J. Loud invents ballpoint pen Jack the Ripper murders in London
1889 Lectures in Britain. (Summer in USA). Improved Kodak camera uses celluloid film Friese-Greene & Evans, and Donisthorpe & Crofts, patent and build roll film motion picture cameras Eiffel Tower built for the Paris exposition Thousands die in Johnstown, Pa. flood
1890 More lectures in Britain Hurter & Driffield devise system to give emulsions speed numbers Reported 'tachyscope' (photos on disc?) projection takes place at the Lenox Lyceum in New York City George Cooke patents gas burner for cooking U.S. troops kill over 200 Sioux at Battle of Wounded Knee
1891 Lectures in mainland Europe Gabriel Lippmann produces a colour image in the camera, from one exposure Georges Demeny takes 'Photography of Speech' sequence photographs George A Hormel & Co introduce Spam Boer trek in South Africa - 20,000 reported to be on the move.
1893 Descriptive Zoopraxography published. Lectures at Chicago World's Fair, in Zoopraxographical Hall
Edison Kinetograph studio in production, demonstration of Kinetoscope film peepshow Whitcomb L. Judson introduces device later known as zip or zipper Panic of 93 (USA) leads to Depression
1894 Returns to England Gum bichromate process introduced for photographic printing Edison Kinetoscope launched in USA and England. Anschutz motion picture disc projection in Germany Mildred Lord granted patent for a washing machine Sino-Japanese War begins
1895 Issues brochure The Motion of the Horse and other animals, in Nature and in Art, announcing lecture season The Photo-Club of Paris ('le Photo Club de Paris') holds its second exhibition Deuxime Exposition d'Art Photographique Lathams; Jenkins/Armat; Skladanowskys; Lumières start film production and screenings. Birt Acres films in England and Germany Guglielmo Marconi develops wireless telegraphy, X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen Democratic State of Taiwan established, but suppressed by Japan
1896 In Boston on business X-ray photograph of a hand with a bullet in it, by Dr Henry L Smith Film screenings worldwide. Mutoscope appears in penny arcades J.J. Thompson discovers the electron First modern Olympic games held in Athens
1897 Returns to England for the last time John Benjamin Stone founds National Photographic Record Association to preserve the folklore and customs of England First Bioscope travelling filmshows on British fairgrounds Edwin S. Votey invents pianola William McKinley inaugurated as 25th president of US
1899 Animals in Motion published Major exhibition of American pictorial photography by Royal Photographic Society, London Biokam small format cine camera/projector launched Valdemar Poulsen invents the first magnetic recording Boer War begins
1901 Human Figure in Motion published The New School of American Photography exhibition, shown in London in 1900, shown to the Photo Club de Paris Film editing enhances motion pictures Marconi sends radio signal across Atlantic Death of Queen Victoria, Commonwealth of Australia established
1902 Claims ancient excavated tile showing animal motion confirms his theory Alfred Stieglitz organises 'Photo-Secessionist' exhibition, New York City Georges Méliès releases A Trip to the Moon Buffalo Forge Company engineer Willis H. Carrier devises air conditioning Britain and Japan form Anglo-Japanese Alliance
1903 Inscribes copies of his books to Library of the University of California The Autochrome patented by the Lumiere Brothers. When marketed in 1907, becomes the first widely used colour process Hepworth's Alice in Wonderland, director: Percy Stow, one of the earliest literary film adaptations Orville and Wilbur Wright achieve powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight Britain invades Tibet
1904 Dies March 14 in Kingston H D Taylor patents coated lenses Optical Lantern and Cinematograph Journal launched in Britain. Etienne-Jules Marey dies General theory of radioactivity by Rutherford and Soddy Start of Russo-Japanese War