EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE: SHORT CHRONOLOGY 1830-1904


Chronology (reduced version).

Go to: 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1899

1830

April 9 Edward James Muggeridge born in Kingston upon Thames, England.

1850

** Emigrates to America, begins bookselling in New York.

1855

Autumn settles in San Francisco and continues in book business. Opens a bookstore at 113 Montgomery Street. Becomes Muygridge.

1857

September 11 San Francisco Daily Bulletin lists Muybridge's 'large case of splendid books' at the Mechanics' Fair.

1859

November 3 elected a director of the Mercantile Library.

1860

May 10 brother Thomas joins Muybridge the book business.

June 12 about to leave for Europe: advertises 'happy in in receiving any commissions my friends may entrust me with for the purchase of books engravings or works of art.'

July 2 leaves San Francisco by Butterfield Overland Stage coach, for the East.

July 22 (circa), suffers serious head injury in stagecoach accident north of Fort Worth.

Autumn (or later) leaves New York for England, where he is treated by Dr. Gull, the Queen's surgeon.

1861

** Applies for a British patent for a washing machine.

** Begins study of photography in England, with Arthur Brown?

1864

**Address: 'France, Paris -- 9 rue Cadet'. (May have been an agent?)

1865

November A Director of The Ottoman Company Ltd.

1866

April/May A Director of The Bank of Turkey. (In London). Also around this time, a Director of the Austin Consolidated Silver Mines Company (Limited).

** Around this time returns to San Francisco and apparently joins Silas Selleck, at the Cosmopolitan Gallery of Photographic Art, 415 Montgomery St., in photography business.

May, brother Thomas leaves San Francisco for Walla Walla, Washington.

1867

June-November visit to Yosemite Valley with his "Flying Studio", takes numerous photographs.

1868

** Now listed as Edward J. Muybridge in San Francisco Directory 'landscape photographer, 415 Montgomery'.

February offers Yosemite photographs under 'Helios' name.

Summer commissioned to photograph one of the U.S. Army's expeditions into the recently territorialized Alaska purchase.

July 29 sets sail for Alaska on board Pacific, takes many photographs, including some for War Dept.

September 4.returns, arrives San Francisco.

October 28 publishes photos of some of the 'worst injured' buildings, showing effects of Oct 21 earthquake.

1869

April becomes associated with the gallery of Arthur and Christian Nahl.

May details of his invention, 'a new sky shade', published in the Philadelphia Photographer.

1870

February or early March photographs Goat Island, submits prints to US army.

May 25 photographs laying of cornerstone of the San Francisco Mint, reported in San Francisco Daily Bulletin.

September 1 San Francisco Daily Bulletin announces stereocards of Woodward's Gardens.

1871

March-August photographs lighthouses on Pacific Coast for US Light House Board.

** the California Geological Survey invites Muybridge to photograph for the High Sierra survey.

May 20 marries Flora Shallcross Stone (Flora E. Downs).

July 4 photographs San Francisco parade of the miners of '49.

December 11 Muybridge possibly in Arizona. '[photographs] Pima County Courthouse in Tucson...participants in the Camp Grant Massacre trial.'

1872

17 January San Francisco Bulletin reception at Art Association. Painter Albert Bierstadt present. Muybridge exhibited 'some very effective views of the Russian River Valley'.

February 2 photographs laying of city hall cornerstone. His photograph of the plans for the building enclosed in cornerstone.


Camera Comics biography of Muybridge, Spring 1945, has single images being photographed by trip thread. This technique was actually used later, for the sequence images - but may have also been used to take single photographs?

April photographs home of Leland Stanford, ex-Governor of California and racehorse breeders. Commences his instantaneous photography of horse movement at a Sacramento racetrack.

June-November visits Yosemite again, photographs 'mammoth' negatives for production of large, high quality prints.

1873

April 7 photographs of Stanford's horse Occident in motion are announced. Success in freezing Occident's gait is noted in Daily Alta California..

May 2-11 photographs Modoc Indians and US soldiers in Lava Beds in northern California.

** Begins association with photographic publishers Bradley and Rulofson.


Back of stereoview.

** Photographs Central Pacific and Union Pacfic Railroads.

** Photographs are shown at Vienna Exposition, and receive a medal.

1874

April 15 [13?] birth of Floredo Helios Muybridge.

April 19 mother, Susannah Smith Muybridge, dies.

October 16 discovers Flora's affair, and believes that Floredo is the son of Harry Larkyns.

October 17 Settles business affairs with photo publisher Rulofson, then...kills Harry Larkyns at Yellow Jacket Mine.

December 8 indicted by grand jury for killing Harry Larkyns.

mid-December wife Flora files for divorce and alimony.

1875

February 2-5 on trial for murder of Larkyns.

February 6 is acquitted on grounds of justifiable homicide.

mid/late February leaves for Central America (Panama, Guatemala) on photographic assignment. Calls himself Eduardo Santiago Muybridge.

March arrives Panama.

May 1 travels to Guatemala.

July 18 Flora dies.

October 1 back in Guatemala city.

October 17 sets off for Panama city.

November 1 back in Panama City.

November 27 arrives in San Francisco.

1876

January 7 Muybridge's slides of Panama, Alaska, and Yosemite are projected for the Photographic Art Society, San Francisco. Muybridge not present.

** sets up shop 618 and 620 Clay street.

May 10 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition (photography section) Bradley & Rulofson exhibit Muybridge Yosemite photographs.

August exhibit at Mechanics' Institute Fair: Central America scenery photos exhibited.

September 16 Floredo enters orphanage.

1877

July/August publishes first of his San Francisco Panoramas. (Two 11-panel versions at least were made).

July takes new instantaneous photograph of Stanford's horse Occident, at Palo Alto stock farm.

August 11 publishes motion painting/photo of Occident.

November proposes microphotography of San Jose official records.

1878

Spring likely date of final 13-panel San Francisco Panorama.

May 18 gives 'second exhibition' of projected slides of his Central America photos, at Art Association Exhibition.


Palo Alto: Sulky being photographed by sequence cameras.
Model, Kingston Museum. Photo: Stephen Herbert

June 11 [?] takes first sequence photographs in 1878-9 Palo Alto series. [or 15 June?]

June 15 press demonstration, 12 photos shown.

June 27 applies for patent for sequence camera shutter, mechanical release: 'method and apparatus for photographing objects in motion.'

July 8 and 9 Daily Alta California report Muybridge's lantern lectures given on three evenings.

July 17 applies for US patent for sequence camera shutter, electrical release.

July 26 The Photographic News (London) first publication in an English periodical of Muybridge's series pictures.

July-September further slide presentations, which include studies of horse in motion.

Autumn Six cards of The Horse in Motion, 'Automatic Electro-Photographs' published.

October 19 Scientific American publishes article on his motion studies, with drawings based on photos of horse Abe Edgerton. Suggests pasting pictures on strips for zoetrope viewing.

December 14 La Nature publishes article on his motion studies, illustrated with drawings from photos, 'les allures du cheval'.

December 28 La Nature publishes Marey's letter to Tissandier re: Muybridge (bird photography, animation in zoetrope, etc).

1879

January 4 Muybridge clock described and illustrated in La Nature No.292 (p.80) 'Horloge Pneumatique'.

January 25 the French magazine L'illustration reports that Emile Duhousset, author of books on horses and their gaits, had mounted Muybridge sequence photographs in a zoetrope. Strips drawn from these pictures offered at 10 francs.

March 4 US patent 212865 issued, Method and Apparatus for Photographing Objects in Motion.

March 21 Watsonville Transcript reports Muybridge, 'probably head of his profession in the world, was in town this week'. Photographed James M Rogers' residence, views of town from water company's tank, and other buildings.

March 22 Muybridge letter re: Marey published in La Nature.'Photographies Instantanees des animaux en movement' .

May begins second season at Palo Alto. Many different animals photographed.

June 28 W. B. Tegetmeier, editor of London paper The Field, states that he had mounted Muybridge photographs in a zoetrope: 'The action of the horse was immediately reproduced...'

June 29 window of The Field attracts crowds to see Muybridge horse sequence in motion in 'zoetrope' (actually, a praxinoscope).

August (or earlier), begins sequence photographs of humans in motion.

Autumn adopts motion sequence photographs into painted images for Zoogyroscope (later known as the Zoopraxiscope), and projects them privately.

**Thomas Eakins paints A May Morning in the Park, showing the four-in-hand of his friend and patron Fairman Rogers; the attitudes of the horses' legs, he calculated from Muybridge photographs.

1880

January 11 photographs the eclipse of the sun, later published as cabinet photo.

January 16 'new show - ballroom of Stanford's San Francisco house' with Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope.

March 21 'showed some of his Zoopraxiscopic discs to visitors to Palo Alto.'

May 4 first public performance of Zoopraxiscope, San Francisco Art Association.

May 5 Daily Alta Califoria: 'nothing was wanting but the clatter of hoofs upon the turf and an occasional breath of steam from the nostrils, to make the spectator believe that he had before him genuine flesh-and-blood steeds'.

May 9 SF Call, 'Flash of light' demonstation, to show how instantaneous photogrophy 'freezes' action, described.

June 5 Scientific American publishes article on Muybridge's sequence photography.

August files patent for method of and apparatus for photographing changing or moving objects.

1881

February 16 Examiner, San Francisco notes that a horse skeleton had been 'imported from New York'. This is photographed in posed positions, and animated on the screen by means of the Zoopraxiscope.


A page from The Attitudes of Animals in Motion
(c) Kingston Museum

May (circa), 'publishes' results on Palo Alto 1878-79 work in an album, The Attitudes of Animals in Motion.

July 27 files US patent for slide-changer, or 'picture feeding device for magic lanterns', one of which he starts to use in his lectures.

August travels from New York to Europe for lectures.

** Now known as Eadweard James Muybridge.

September-November Lectures in France.

September 26 exhibits Zoopraxiscope at home of Etienne-Jules Marey, physiologist, in Paris.

November presentations of Zoopraxiscope at Paris home of Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, French painter.

December lecture, Cercle de l'Union Artistique, Paris.

December 20 US patent (slide changer) 251127 granted.

1882

February leaves France for London.


Plate from The Horse in Motion, Dr. J.B.D. Stillman
(c) Kingston Museum

February publication of American edition of Stillman's The Horse in Motion. Contains five Muybridge photos (heliotype reproductions], and 91 photolithographs by San Francisco artist William Hahn, drawings based on Muybridge photos.

March-June series of lectures in England, with lantern slides and Zoopraxiscope.

March 13 lecture at Royal Institution. (Rehearsal 6th March).

March 14 or 16 lecture at Royal Academy of Arts.

March 18 lecture at Savage Club.

April 4 lecture at Society of Arts.

April 5 lecture at South Kensington Museum.

April 26 angry about his lack of recognition in Stillman's book, he writes to Nature defending his position..

April 27 Title only of Muybridge paper 'On the Attitudes of Animals in Motion' is read at Royal Society meeting, London.

May 18 Francis Galton writes Royal Society report on 'dispute about scientific proprietorship' of photos ... 'unable to advise Society to order Mr Muybridge's paper to be presented [in Transactions or Proceedings].' Receipt of paper was however noted in Transactions. (Muybridge angry at Royal Society refusing his lecture, on account of Stillman's book The Horse in Motion, recently published, implying that Muybridge was merely a hired hand).

May 30 writes to Marey, asking for his collaboration.

May writes to Nature suggesting 'photo-finish' apparatus for horse races.

June 5 lecture to Liverpool Art Club.

June 8 lectures at home of artist John J Atkinson.

June 13 sails for New York from Liverpool, on the Republic.

June 23 text of lecture to Society of Arts (4 Apr) published in Journal of the Society of Arts.

June 25 arrives New York. (OR July 4).

July 17 Muybridge sends Marey sketches of 'wheel camera'.

August 22 Newport, Rhode Island lecture.

September 9 Scientific American article.

September commences legal action against Osgood (publishers of Stillman 's book The Horse in Motion), then against Stanford.

October 1 prosectus (or invitation flyer?) for lecture the Attitudes of Animals in Motion, a lecture by Eadweard Muybridge. Illustrated with the zoopraxiscope.

October 13 illustration in Knowledge, drawing comparing the 'attitudes' shown in Muybridge's photographs with traditional artists' impressions of a moving horse.

October 1882-Spring 1884 series of lectures in USA.

October 19 Society of Arts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology lecture.

October 23 Union Hall, Boston, public lecture The Romance and Realities of Animal Locomotion. One of several, every evening (except Wednesday) for one week, with matinees Wed and Sat.

November 17 lecture, Turf Club New York City.

November 28 National Academy of Design lecture.

December 22 National Academy of Design second lecture.

1883

January 9 Union League Club, New York lecture.

February 12 Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, lecture.

February 13 Franklin Institute lecture.

February 15 Academy of Music lecture.

February 16 second lecture, Academy of Fine Arts.

Spring Muybridge lectures in New York, Photograph Section of the American Institute, Cooper Union and elsewhere.

September 26 lecture at the New Bedford High School, Massachusetts.

1884

February 8 lectures at Association Hall, Philadelphia.

March Pepper appoints the 'Muybridge Commission' to 'supervise' photography at University of Philadelphia.

June begins Philadelphia sequence photography work at the University of Pennsylvania (until c.January 1886); takes approximately 100,000 sequence photographs.

** lecture, Scientific Society, University of Pennsylvania. (Possibly this was Feb 8 lecture)

1885

February 13 '[the court] rendered judgement in Stanford's favor; thus Muybridge lost his case.'

April 30 lectures again to Scientific Society, University of Pennsylvania.

Summer re-starts sequence photography at the University.

August 2 The Times, Philadelphia, 'Animal Motion - Mr Muybridge's observations at the University of Pennsylvania.' with drawings based on photos.

August photographs animals and birds as Zoological gardens.

Autumn photographs locomotion of horses at Gentelmen's Driving Park at Belmont, near Philadelphia.

October 28 sequence photography finished on this date.

1887

** Animal Locomotion, 781 plates, published.

December 27 lecture at Thomas S. Clarke's art studio in Oakland, Pittsburg.

1888

January 19 New York paper The Nation discusses the possibility of 'joining Muybridge's photographs to Edison's phonograph'.

February-autumn Series of lectures in USA

February 2 lecture in the art studio of William M. Chase, West Tenth Street, New York City.

February 25 lectures in Orange, New Jersey.

February 27 visits Thomas Edison, discusses combining Zoopraxiscope with phonograph.

March 9 lecture Union League Club, New York.

March 12 lecture at Century Club, New York.

May 4 Orange, New Jersey second lecture.

June 21 lecture, Hall of the Milwaukee College.

Summer/Autumn lecture Art Institute of Chicago; also Boston and Philadelphia lectures.

** Book published: Animal locomotion : the Muybridge work at the University of Pennsylvania : the method and the result. Philadelphia. Printed for the University by J.B. Lippincott Co., contains three papers by experts: Marks, W. D. 'The mechanism of instantaneous photography.' Allen, H. 'Materials for a memoir on animal locomotion'. Dercum, F. X. 'A study of some normal and abnormal movements photographed by Muybridge.'

1889

January 26 sets out from New York to Liverpool on the R.M.S. Servia

February 7 Muybridge in London by (or shortly after) this date.

February 1889-March 1890 Series of lectures in England, Scotland, and Ireland.

February 9 Muybridge lecture at Tadema's art studio in London?

March 22 Royal Institution lecture, London.

May 8 lectures to Royal Society, Burlington House, London.


Engraving (detail) Illustrated London News, 25 May 1889

May 25 Royal Society lecture reported - including cover picture and interior illustrations (engravings) - in the Illustrated London News. 'Muybridge's photographs of animal motion'.

late August lecture Photographic Convention of Great Britain, St James's Hall, London.

September two lectures, Newcastle.

October 28 lecture to the Literary and Philosophical Society 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Design in Art', Sheffield.

November 7 lecture to Brisol Naturalists' Society, Victoria Rooms, Bristol.

November 21 lecture 'Wellington School' (Wellington College, Crowthorne, Berkshire) to the boys of the Natural Science Society.

November 27 lecture Leeds, to Leeds Mechanics' Institution, and Literary Society.

December 2 lecture, Assembly Rooms, Bath.

December lecture, London Institution.

1890

January 8 lecture in small concert-room, St George's Hall, Liverpool.

January and February Manchester lectures?

January lecture prospectus published in England, The Science of animal locomotion in its relation to design in art: 'syllabus of a course of two lectures... when one lecture alone is given it consists of a condensed edition.'.


English biunial magic lantern slide projector used by Muybridge
for his lectures. (c) Kingston Museum. Photo: Stephen Herbert

February 3 lecture at Lecture Hall, Tower Street, Ipswich, arranged by the Scientific Society.

February 11 lecture, The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Art and Design, Hall of Young Men's Christian Association, arranged by Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Association, Belfast.

February 12 lecture Royal Dublin Society, lecture theater, Leinster House, Kildare St, Dublin.

February 13 lecture Belfast.

February 14 lecture Royal Dublin Society, lecture theatre, Leinster House, Kildare St, Dublin.

February 17 lecture Dublin, for Photographic Society of Ireland, Antient Concert Rooms, Great Brunswick Street.

February 27 lecture Queen's Rooms, Glasgow, for the Glasgow Philosophical Society, acting as the Glagow Science Lectures Association Trust.

March 12 lecture Birmingham, The Motions of Animals, Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, Town Hall.

March 13 lecture Mason College, Birmingham.

March 14 lecture Birmingham, The Motions of Animals, Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, Town Hall.

Summer returns to United States, then back to England.

October-November. Lectures in England and Scotland.

October 13 lecture Birmingham. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art [pt 1], Midland Institute.

October 20 lecture Birmingham.[pt 2], Midland Institute.

November 27 lecture Kinnaird Hall, Dundee, one of the Armitstead Lectures.

** Also in 1890: lecture at Colston Hall, Bristol.

1891

March-Summer. Lectures in major towns in mainland Europe icluding Germany, Italy and Switzerland.

March 9 lectures Berlin.

** Munich Technische Hochschule lecture.

Autumn - end of travelling lecture series.

November 25 returns to America on the Ohio, from Liverpool.

December 7 (?) arrives Philadelphia.

Autumn /Winter? The Science of Animal Locomotion published.

1892

February 11 letter to David Starr Jordan, President of Leland Stanford Junior University: would they help re: flight of insects research.

March Muybridge in California.

October (latest) had abandoned plans for a lecture tour of the East (India and Japan? Australia?)

October 19 arranges to give lectures in Zoopraxographical Hall, World's Columbian Exposition.

1893

Spring Descriptive Zoopraxography published.

Spring to October? Lectures at World's Columbian Exposition (World's Fair, Chicago).

May 10 the Daily Columbian lists Muybridge as lecturing in Jackson Park, near the Midway where his Zoopraxographical Hall was located.

Spring/Summer? series of b/w 'Zoopraxiscope' paper discs published, to be sold at Chicago World's Fair: 'tracings from Animal Locomotion'. (50 or 51). Also, Set of 12 coloured perforated paper discs.

1894

February 8 letter to Edison (from Philadelphia), enclosing copy of book on Zoopraxography. Mentions that he is now working on an instrument for photographing the wings of a fly.

Summer returns to England.

1895

May issues brochure The Motion of the Horse and other animals, in Nature and in Art, announcing a lecture season 'from October next until March 1896', to be illustrated with '40 new zoopraxiscopic projecting discs'. Address is the Chestnuts, Kingston.

October 1 circular letter 'no further engagements ... before February 96.'

October 16 lecture, Ipswich Public Hall.

1896

March 19 Lecture 'The Motion of the Horse and other Animals in Nature and in Art', with slides, City Hall, Liverpool Amateur Photographic Association.

June (?) (until May 1897) Final visit to United States to settle business relating to University of Pennsylvania work.

June various correspondence re: recovering negs from Photogravure Co.

1897

May returns from US ?

Summer/Autumn last known lecture, to Artists' Society, St Ives, Cornwall.

Autumn completes neotiations with Chapman and Hall re: two new books.

1899

** Animals in Motion published by Chapman and Hall, London, containing over 1600 of the Palo Alto and Pennsylvania photographs reproduced by half-tone.

1901

**The Human Figure in Motion published by Chapman and Hall, London.

** Muybridge appears in UK census, at 161 Kings Road, Kingston. Occupation: Zoopraxographer. Age given (incorrectly) as 74. Transcription has him as Edward Mansbridge, b. 1827.

1904

March 14 in failing health, he writes his Will.

May 8 dies at 2 Liverpool Road, Kingston upon Thames.

May 11 cremated at Woking. Memorial stone misspells his name Eadweard Maybridge, and crematorium register calls him Eudweard Muybridge.

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