THE COMPLEAT EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE: CHRONOLOGY 1893-1904
Key to references [in square brackets]
**produces, with artist Erwin F. Faber, new Zoopraxiscope discs, at 12-inches diameter smaller than the original 16-inch discs, and comprising drawn outlines reproduced photographically onto the glass, and then coloured by hand. (Most are dated 1893, at least two are dated 1894). Subjects range from athletes to birds and animals, and some are composite scenes.
January printed announcement by Fine Arts Commission re: forthcoming lectures in Zoopraxographical Hall. Muybridge 'will give at intervals, from May to October, 1893, --- a series of Lectures...' Signed Newton H, Carpenter. Sec, Art Institute, Chicago. [Haas 174]
Spring Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion made Popular (Pennsylvania) is published.
Spring/Summer Lectures at World's Columbian Exposition (World's Fair, Chicago).
12 April Chicago Daily Tribune 'We will rebuild finer than ever' (title not relevant) 'Prof. Muybridge Lectures' 'Two hundred artists and students were entertained yesterday afternoon in Athenaeum Hall by prof. Edward Muybridge. He gave a lecture on "Animal Locomotion or Zoopraxography," illustrated by his invention called the Zoopraxiscope... (description). Prof. Muybridge is engaged to deliver 300 lectures at the World's Fair under the auspices of the National Board of Education.'
14 April Chicago Daily Tribune 'ANIMAL LOCOMOTION AND ART DESIGNS. Prof. Eadweard Muybridge Lectures to Art Students, Showing Photographs.' 'Prof. Eadweard Muybridge of the University of Pennsylvania delivered a lecture on "The Science of Animal Locomotion in Its Relation to Design in Art" at the Athenaeum Hall yesterday afternoon, which was illustrated with stereoscopic [stereopticon?] views showing the...(etc) During the progress of the Exposition Prof. Muybridge will deliver daily lectures at the grounds under the auspices of the United States Government Educational Bureau.'
April 'The Boston Camera Club' by Benjamin Kimball, in The New England Magazine includes mention of Francis Blake and associate John G. Hubbard: 'Mr. Blake's work with this [shutter] has been marvellous and is not excelled, and perhaps not equalled, by that of Mr. Muybridge.' [The Making of America collection at:
April 21 British Journal of Photography p.250, Camera Club Conference - Influence of Photography on the Vision....'...a paper by Leon Vidal, which dealt with the influences which the work of Muybridge, Marey, and others, who had photographed rapidly moving objects, had exercised over the art of painting, and also their effect in training the eye to see objects in motion as photography showed them to be.'
May 5 (before fair opens) Daily Columbian lists Zoopraxographical Hall as the Muybridge Lecture Hall. [Hendricks 218]. Building's architect was Thomas Wing of Chicago. [A History of the World's Columbian Exposition, 1897, p. 172-176]
May 10 the Daily Columbian lists Muybridge as lecturing in Jackson Park (which was adjacent to the Midway); no admission charge.
May 10 Chicago Daily Tribune, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]
May 11 The Daily Citizen, Iowa City, Iowa. 'THE SIDESHOWS. Extra Fees Are Charged for These World's Fair Attractions. Long List of Novel Means of Entertainment Together with Their Prices of Admission. COST ABOUT $15 TO SEE ALL....Lectures on Animal Locomotion. Jackson [...]on Animal Locomotion, illustrating science of Animal Locomotion and zoopraxiscopic fans. No admission charge...' [http://www.newspaperarchive.com]
June 15 Le Magasin Pittoresque Vol. no.12. Les cires de Meissonier par E. Duhousset avec dessins dans le texte (le general Duroc, pose de galop d'apres Muybridge, pose des membres).
June 16 Chicago Daily Tribune 'NOTHING LIKE IT EVER SEEN. All the Denizens of the Midway Plaisance Will Parade in the Grounds.' 'The Midway Plaisance will make its first grand entry into Jackson Park Saturday afternoon at 2 o'clock.' ... 'The Ferris Wheel employees are now uniformed and will turn out in a body; the Moorish palace will contribute its native band, and the Persian Pavilion its quota of attaches. Eiffel Tower and Prof. Muybridge's Zoopraxographical Hall will be seen also.' [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access]
Spring/Summer? series of b/w 'Zoopraxiscope' paper discs published, to be sold at Chicago World's Fair: 'tracings from Animal Locomotion'. (50 or 51?). [Muybridge letter to E F Faber, 11 March 1901]
Spring/Summer? Set of 12 coloured perforated paper discs published, to be sold at Chicago World's Fair. [Muybridge letter to E F Faber, 11 March 1901]
August 3 Chicago Daily Tribune 'TALK TO EMPTY SEATS. TECHNICAL LEARNING IN MANY CONGRESSES FAILS TO ATTRACT - In the evening the Congress on Painting and Sculpture listened to an address on "Copperplate Engraving" by Frederick Keppel of New York, illustrated by the stereopticon, and a paper on "The Science of Animal Locomotion in Its Relation to Design in Art," by Edward Muybridge. The attendance was not large.'
August 13 Chicago Daily Tribune, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog] (OR should be August 3?)
September 5 letter (from Chicago) to Stanford's estate re: boxes of equipment and views. [Haas 176]
World's Fair Certificate (detail).
September 9 Signs copy of Descriptive Zoopraxography, to Dr. Bowditch: "H.P. Bowditch MD / from his friend / The Author / 9 Sept 1893". Bowdich was a physical anthropologist, with Harvard Medical School for 35 years. [from book sale on the web, Sept 2010]
** University of Pennsylvania is awarded a Certificate by the Award Commission of the World's Fair: 'AWARD. For the extent and scientific importance of the collection. The photographs made by Mr. Edward Muybridge, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, show with great elaboration and precision the locomotion and movements of animals, including man.' Certificate is illustrated in Homer Croy's How Motion Pictures Are Made (1919).
** Atlas de Physiologie Artistique published by Marey and Demeny, containing illustrations influenced by Muybridge's published sequence photographs. [Pompidou 112]
** Contributes various entries relating to Animal Locomotion, to Funk & Wagnalls' Standard Dictionary of the English Language, illustrated with line drawings based on his photographic sequences.
January 7 New York Times (review) 'Motion as art shows it. Action in art.' By W.H. Beard. New-York: Cassell Publishing Company. Page 23, 685 words. 'Mr. Beard gives the result of many years of experience, and without laying down, any absolute laws, believes that such suggestions as he offers would help the student in the representation of motion in art. It is evident, he says, "that things should be represented as they seem to be rather than as we may know them to be."' ... 'When we study animal motion, by means of the Muybridge prints, we may see ... many facts which we never imagined to exist, that is no reason why we should draw them, save to elucidate a scientific fact.' (Book uses drawings from Mubridge photos to illustrate point). [New York Times archive online]
January 14 Chicago Tribune 'Art out of Doors' [Remington] "People have talked about my using Muybridge, and photographs. I've said all I want to say about that already; but I never saw Muybridge's pictures, though I've made photographs times enough myself.........[re: horses] if you don't feel it you never can draw them, because cameras don't feel, and consequently do not produce action."
January 15 I.K. Funk inscribes a presentation copy of Funk & Wagnalls' Standard Dictionary of the English Language: "To Edweard [sic] Muybridge, in memory of friendly relations in the long journey from A to Izzard..." [etc. Two-volume edition in Kingston Museum Collection] [Herbert Muy Blog Selection 2009-2012, 2014 pp128-131.]
February 8 letter to Edison (from Philadelphia), enclosing copy of book on Zoopraxography. Mentions that he is now working on an instrument for photographing the wings of a fly. [Hendricks 220]
February 14 letter from Edison [Hend Kinetoscope 9, n.2] or 21st? [Hendricks 220]
February 26 writes again to Edison, re: meeting to discuss M's new machinery for photographing wing of insects, re: aerial navigation, vessels through water, etc.
Spring? creates (with Erwin F. Faber) Zoopraxiscope disc of 1894 Derby.
June Century magazine, Muybridge included? [Hamilton bibliog]
June 1 Muybridge in New York. Date: 1 June 1894, in copy of Descriptive Zoopraxography dedicated to Wilberforce Eames. (Eames (1855–1937) was a U.S. bibliographer and librarian.) [Book from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), on the Internet Archive]
July 15 Chicago Tribune 'Profits on the Side', listing under Miscellaneous: 'E. Muybridge. animal locomotion.... 102 [dollars]' (also: 'O. Anschultz (sic) Tachyscopes ....1,472')
August 2 Animal Locomotion order form to the 'New York Photo-gravure Compy...Please send 209 plates...addressed to the Academy of Fine Arts.'
August leaves US for England, on the Umbria.
September 8 arrives in Liverpool on the Umbria. Age given as 56 ['b. abt. 1838'] 'Gent. Cabin Passenger'. [ancestry.com]
Autumn address: Hampton Wick, Middx. [Haas 179] Staying with uncle (mother's brother) John Plow Smith. [Hendricks 220]
November 6 letter from Muybridge's cousin Rachel Rickard [nee Smith] to Elizabeth Selfe: 'Edward ... is lodging in Mr. Gennett's house in High St.' [Solnit 292]
November 25 first public exhibition of the Anschuetz Projecting Electrotachyscope, demonstrated in Berlin at the Grand Hall of the Post Office Building, Artilleriestrasse. Demonstration and then three-day public exhibition of this projecting apparatus was compared to the 1892 lectures of Muybridge with his Zoopraxiscope at the Urania Theatre, Berlin.
December 22 Leeds Mercury From this date, correspondence and reports about the purchase of full set of Animal Locomotion. Continues 3, 5, 12 January, 6 April 1895, etc.
** Report on Indians Taxed and Not Taxed, Donaldson, Thomas (editor) (Wash.: G.P.O. 1894, Wash., 1894). Part of a larger. work. Sub-Title: Condition of Indians-California. (in 1890) Report on population and reservations. pp.199-222. 3 maps. 16 photos (15 by Cantwell; one by Muybridge).
January Yorkshire Evening Post 'THE NEW HUNDRED-AND-TEN-GUINEA BOOK IN THE LEEDS FREE LIBRARY.' Includes two drawings based on Muybridge sequences.
February 15 Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer 'The lecture session is now over ... unless, indeed the offer of Dr. Muybridge to give a free kinetoscope exhibition and lecture on Animal Locomotion be accepted.'
May issues brochure The Motion of the Horse and other animals, in Nature and in Art, announcing a lecture season 'from October next until March 1896', to be illustrated with '40 new zoopraxiscopic projecting discs'.
May address is the Chestnuts, Kingston. [Haas 179] 'a boarding house not far down the High Street from where he had been born.' [Hendricks 221]
June 24 letter to William Pepper. [Haas 180]
August 5 letter to Burk re: new books. [Haas 179]
August 7 letter to Burk (or letter to Samuel Dickson) re: Animal Locomotion stock. [Haas 180]
October 1 circular letter 'no further engagements ... before February 96.' [Haas 179]
October 12 Advertisements & Notices, The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, October 12, 1895; Issue 9518. Classified ads: advertisement for October 16th lecture. Also: promotional news item: 'Visit of Mr. Eadweard Muybridge' - 'Through the instrumentality of Mr. W. Vick and a local committee, a unique entertainment will take place in the Ipswich Public Hall...'
October 14 lecture 'Animals in Motion' at a school in the South of England. Were colour discs shown? [Mention in Journal of Education Nov 1895, p.658 and/or 685. No access at present]
October 16 'lecture and demonstration', Ipswich, 'Motion of the Horse and other Animals in Nature and in Art'. [Ipswich Journal advert: 12 October 1895].
October 17 'The Motions of Animals' report on lecture of 16th October, in East Anglian Daily Times, p.5. Zoopraxiscope was used.
October 18 Sheffield Daily Telegraph advertisement for lecture that evening.
October 19 Sheffield Daily Telegraph LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. "THE MOVEMENTS OF THE HORSE" Report of lecture "last night" (i.e. Friday 18 October) at Surrey Street Music Hall. Zoopraxiscope was used.
*** BJP Almanac, 'Dissolvers - past and present' - '....where rapid changes are required, and the expenditure of gas a secondary matter, the light can be burning full on, and flap shutters or front fans used, or even a pad, as Mr. Muybridge's assistant did when changing very rapidly from one picture to another.' [Lester Smith collection]
January Muybridge dedicates his 'Author's Selection' volume of Animal Locomotion plates to the public library at Kingston-upon-Thames.
January 28 writes letter to The Library, published shortly afterwards in: Correspondence A PUBLISHERS' CRIME. SIR,- I need not inform you, nor any other member of the Library Association, that in the consultation of many books, perhaps more especially those on scientific subjects, it is of great importance that the date of publication be known.
February Haas states that by this date Muybridge was established in Boston [Haas 180], but not possible as he gave March lecture in Liverpool.
February 8 New York Times book review
| New Publications' Movement in Photography by E.J. Marey, trans. by Eno Pritchard (Appleton & Co.). 'With our own Muybridge M. Marey unites his name, and the two are to be considered the pioneers, in a special branch of work, to be known as chronophotography...'
March 19 Lecture 'The Motion of the Horse and other Animals in Nature and in Art', with slides, City Hall, Liverpool Amateur Photographic Association. [BJP report 27 March]
March 27 British Journal of Photography, report of Liverpool City Hall lecture of 19 March. [online search]
May 30 L'Illustration No.2779 Includes: 'Chiens Au Galop Obtenus par Muybridge'.
May Photographic Times, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]
June (?) (until May 1897) Final visit to United States to settle business relating to University of Pennsylvania work.
June various correspondence re: recovering negs from Photogravure Co. [Haas 180]
June 9 agreement with guarantors re: Animal Locomotion negatives. Printing rights pass to Pepper. [Haas 181]
June 12 telegram to Pepper re: recovery of Animal Locomotion negs. [Haas]
July 17 British Journal of Photography editorial reminiscence. 'There was one very funny reminiscence on the occasion of the lecture in Albermarle-street. ......' Here [scroll down when you get to page]
July 17 British Journal of Photography OUTSIDE STUDIO WORK III ... As to the productions of Mr. Muybridge, these, no doubt, served the purpose for which they were intended, viz., to depict the various motions of a horse developed in the act of galloping, but it is going too far to call such results pictures, for they were merely silouhettes [sic], and such results would certainly not be accepted as satisfactory photographs by the owners of horses generally, who look for the results showing the utmost amount of definition possible.
July/August British Journal of Photography correspondence (W.Friese-Greene, T.H. Bethell) concerning Muybridge's influence on cinematography.
October Photographic News includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]
Also in 1896:
** Correspondence between Muybridge and G.W. Wilson, Scotland, about the commercial publishing of some of Muybridge's lantern slides. Pacific Coast views were rejected, but 51 examples of motion studies accepted. Muybridge to receive royalties on each slide. [Details from material in Harry Ransome Humanities Research Centre, University of Texas at Austin, cited in periodical Northern Scotland edited by Aberdeen University. Published by Centre for Scottish Studies, University of Aberdeen, 1990, Item notes: v. 11-12 , p 97, 98, 103.]
April 26 Receipt:: 'Received of Dr William Pepper Thirty seven negatives of Animal Locomotion for the purpose of making into Zoopraxiscopic Discs, which are to be returned to Dr Pepper at any time he so requests.
May 13 letter to William Kelby, librarian New York Historical Society, re: 13-part panorama. [Harris 122]
May Photographic Times notes visit to their offices, Muybridge about to leave for Europe. [Hendricks 222]
May returns to UK from US ?
Summer/Autumn last known lecture, to Artists' Society, St Ives, Cornwall. [Herbert]
Autumn completes negotiations with Chapman and Hall re: two new books. [Haas 182]
November 9 letter in Camera Club Journal, (prompted by a published account of a lecture - info from The Standard of 5 Nov - on the introduction of moving pictures, which suggested 1893 and the Edison Kinetoscope as the start of motion synthesis), pointing out an 1881 account of a Zoopraxiscope show of two years earlier.
** La Chronophotoraphie Sur La Plaque Fixe et Sur Pellicule Mobile, Jules Louis Gastine (Gauthier-Villars, Paris.) Undated . 172 pages plus 16 pages of ads in back. Many diagrams. History and technique of moving picture photography. Includes Muybridge. "Encyclopedie Scientifique des Aide-Memoire" series.
January 3 signs contract with Chapman and Hall re: two new books. [Haas 182]
April Journal of the Franklin Institute, includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]
** Animated Pictures, by Charles Francis Jenkins (Published by the author, Washington D.C.): 'His zoopraxiscope consisted, as to novelty, of an immense disc, or wheel, one of which is said to have been thirteen feet in diameter...' Jenkins' error indicates how little known were the true technical details of the Zoopraxiscope.
Also in 1898:
** letter to (?) [at South Kensington Museum], thanking him for suggesting contacting Chapman and Hall, with a view to them publishing Muybridge's book. This had been successful. [2010 donation, Kingston Museum]
** Prospectus to first edition of Animals in Motion issued. Machine is called Zoopraxinoscope.(?) [Hecht 441G]
** Animals in Motion, an Electro-Photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Progressive Movements, etc. published by Chapman and Hall, London, containing over 1600 of the Palo Alto and Pennsylvania photographs reproduced by half-tone. [Coe, M & C 23] Title: [BL]
January London book dealer Bernard Quaritch offers second-hand copy, full set of 781 Animal Locomotion plates for sale, at one hundred and five pounds. This brochure gives information on number of original sets printed and sold. [Barnes Collection]
June 1 The Scotsman 'NEW BOOKS' (Animals in Motion? Notice or review?) [The Scotsman digital archive online]
June 16 writes (from Hampton Wick) to Erwin F. Faber, the artist responsible for the later Zoopraxiscope drawn images ('smash the negatives [of the 12-inch] discs').
July 1 Newark Daily Advocate (Ohio), '... There may be peculiarities in insect flight especially difficult to record, just as the wing feathers of birds, according to Professor Muybridge, ... ' [Google News Archive search]
July 6 Nature review of Animals in Motion. 'The instrument is called the Zoöpraxiscope; it is in a large degree similar to the old Phenakistiscope, made by Dubosq [sic] of Paris, by means of which moving pictures were projected on to a screen at the old Polytechnic Institution.' [Scrap?]
July 8 Daily Chronicle 'Zoopraxography'. '...with amusement rife, the Zoetrope or Wheel of Life.' [Scrap?]
July 14 British Journal of Photography reviews Animals in Motion. [Clegg 236]
** Henry V Hopwood's Living Pictures: Their History, Photo-Production and Practical Working published (Optician and Photographic Trades Review). Includes brief description of Muybridge's work and Zoopraxiscope, evidently based on reports.
** Photographie Animée, by EugeneTrutat, published (Paris, Gauthier-Villars). Descriptions of Muybridge sequence work. Includes engraving of Palo Alto arrangement.
** Muybridge at 'Parade Villas.' (?) [Hendricks 223]
April 14 The Sydney Mail 'The Regular Progressive Movements of the Horse. We are enabled (says the "Mark Lane Express") by the courtesy of Messrs Funk and Wagnall, of New York, to give a series of illustrations and definitions of the progressive movements of the horse, taken from advance sheets of the new "Standard Dictionary", which that firm is now preparing. They are from photographs by Mr. Eadweard Muybridge, whose qualifications for this work are thus described.....'
** Muybridge's sequence photographs included in the 'exposition d'instruments et d'images relatifs a l'histoire de la chronophotographie' display cabinet by E.J. Marey at the Paris Exposition, 1900. [Mannoni2 362]
October 6 Athaneum includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bib]
October 28 New York Times 'Instantaneous Portraiture'. Re: Roosevelt photograph: 'But it is no more the Roosevelt that any of us has listened to as he galloped under whip and spur towards his goal than the horse of Mr. MUYBRIDGE'S early efforts was the splendid animal seen on the course.'
March 11 letter to Erwin Faber (from 161 King's Road, Kingston) re: Colts, G. W. Wilson Co., etc.
** The Human Figure in Motion, an Electro-Photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Muscular Actions published by Chapman and Hall, London. Title: [Lib of Congress] (Introductory pages HERE)
July 18 Illustrated London News article, with photo of Zoopraxiscope. [According to transcribed copy of Webster letter, 18 Nov 1931. BUT: Not Found. Not Jun 1901 or July 1904]
November 18 The Scotsman 'NEW BOOKS' (The Human Figure in Motion? Notice or Review?)[The Scotsman digital archive online]
** Eadweard Muybridge appears in UK census, at 161 Kings Road, Kingston, as cousin of head of household George Lawrence, corn factor salesman. Occupation: Zoopraxographer. Age given as 74. Transcription has him as Edward Mansbridge, b. 1827. Other occupants are Catherine Smith, half-sister of G. Lawrence, and Florence Gibbs (general domestic servant).
February 1 The Field 'Figures in Motion' includes zoetrope story. [Scrap?]
May 22 The Times London, letter published; comments on figures of a bull, and a deer on an excavated 'tablet of Mena' (4,700 BC) illustrated in 'Egyptology' in the new edition of Encycopaedia Britannica: 'This distinctive method of galloping was unknown, and, indeed, unsuspected by us moderns, until revealed by photographic investigation of animal locomotion; but it was apparently well known to the early artists of Egypt.' [Hendricks 225]
May 25 Sunday. Special Cable to THE NEW YORK TIMES. Page 5, 87 words. 'Animals in motion; New Evidence as to the Correctness of Muybridge's Theory.' 'Muybridge ... this week has reiterated his statement that these instantaneous reproductions of motion which were unknown to the world for many centuries were known to the ancients, as is witnessed by the exact reproductions of animals in motion on the tablets recently unearthed.'
June 2 'EGYPTIAN ART AND THE CAMERA', The Sun(Baltimore, USA) June 2, 1902, 'It is a remarkable circumstance that a tablet of Mena, King of Egypt, dating from the first dynasty, or about -1700 B.C, and containing pictures of animals and the oldest written sentence yet discovered, represents a deer and bull in phases of rapid movement unsuspected by modern artists until revealed by recent photographic investigation of animal locomotion. These revelations of the camera were well known says Mr E Muybridge...'
December Photographic Times comments on Muybridge correspondence in The Times, re: 'tablet of Mena.' [Hendricks 226]
** 'The History of Chronophotography' by E.J. Marey, Smithsonian Institute (Institution?) Annual Report, includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]
June 20 letter to Librarian, State University, Berkeley. Offers to donate copies of recent books. [Solnit 238]
October inscribes copies of his books to State Library, and Library of the University of California. [Hendricks 226]
** Library Association Year Book [possibly 1903/4?] p.31, 'List of Fellows and Members' lists Muybridge (elected 1891) at 161 King's Road, Kingston-on-Thames. Benjamin Carter of Kingston Library/Museum is also a member, elected 1903. [Google Book Search]
March 14 in failing health, he writes his Will.
March 22 Oakland Tribune (California) 'PROVES HORSES FEET DON'T TOUCH GROUND' 'Muybridge commenced his investigations in Sacramento under the direction of Senator Leland Stanford on the stock farm which is now the site of...' (books donated by Muybridge to University of California) [Google newspaper archive search]
May 8 dies at 2 Liverpool Road, Kingston upon Thames.
May 11 cremated at Woking St John's Crematorium. Stone marking ashes misspells his name Eadweard Maybridge, and crematorium register calls him Eudweard Muybridge.[Coe, M & C 23]
Key to references [in square brackets]