Key to references [in square brackets]

1890 1891 1892


** The International Annual of Anthony's Photographic Bulletin II (1889) 'Are Instantaneous Photographs True,' by Captain Abney. (Muybridge included?) [Hamilton bibliog]

** Ramsaye writes that Muybridge gave lecture to Oxford Club, Brooklyn, in 1889. If so, must have been January as Muybridge in UK rest of that year. Also, Dancing Girl almost certainly not subject on pe-1892 discs. Ref: 'Ch.7: Black's Pre-Film Pictureplay. [Alexander Black, of the later Black's Picture Plays lantern shows]...was in the audience when Muybridge addressed the Oxford club of Brooklyn in 1889.....Muybridge presented on his "Zoopraxiscope" a picture of a dancing girl in a costume which interfered neither with her movements nor the vision of the audience. The stumbling of an usher or some similar mishap made a noise in the back of the house. Some one hissed for silence. Muybridge hastily assumed that the hiss was for his dancing girl picture. He stopped the show and harangued that staid Oxford club audience on the purity of art and the divinity of the human form.' A Million and One Nights. The History of the Motion Picture, Terry Ramsaye. (Talk to Oxford Club not found in newspaper searches.)

January 26 travels to Europe on Cunard Line's R.M.S Servia, which steamed from New York to Liverpool on 26 January 1889, under Capt. Horatio McKay. Edward Muybridge listed as a passenger travelling 'saloon class'.

February 7 Muybridge in London by (or shortly after) this date -Autograph letter Signed. Riviere, Briton. English Animal Painter. Dated Feb. 7, 1889, from Flaxley, 82 Finchley Rd N.W. To "My Dear Tadema, Many thanks! It would have given me pleasure to meet Mr. Muybridge - whom I remember very well - but I have some one comming here on that night." [Bookseller: Michael Good - Fine and Rare Books. Inventory # 06413]

February 9 lecture at Tadema's art studio in London? Suggested by letters of Feb 7 and Feb 11. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912)... arguably the most successful painter of the Victorian era. In 1883 the family moved to St John's Wood where they held the famous 'At Homes,' a feature of London Society.

February 11 letter dated Feb. 11, 19 Porchester Terrace W. To: "Dear Tadema, I was not able to get to you on Saturday as I had a cold in my eye & didn't like to venture out on such a night(?). Yours ever, G. DuMaurier". The bookseller says: The original invitation from Tadema was probably for a get together as Casa Tadema to view the primitive motion pictures of Muybridge scheduled for Feb 9th, 1889. [??] [Bookseller Bookseller: Michael Good - Fine and Rare Books. Inventory # 05954]

February 22 letter, E. Muybridge, 38 Craven St., Charing Cross, London, to Frederick A. Eaton. Date 22 Feb 1889. Muybridge expresses his pleasure at being invited by the President and Council to give two lectures on "animal locomotion in its relation to design in art" at the RA on 12 and 13 March. He will endeavour to condense his usual course of four lectures in such a way as to ensure that as little important matter as possible is omitted. He invites Eaton to visit him to examine the complete copy of his work on animal locomotion, so that he can ask Eaton's advice on a few points that will assist him with publication; or he will visit Eaton at the Academy. [Royal Academy of Arts Archive Ref:RAA/SEC/6/40/1]

March 12 and 13 lecture Royal Academy of Arts?

March 13 ART NOTES, Pall Mall Gazette (London), Issue 7484. 'Mr. E. Muybridge...a couple lof lectures'.

March (mid-late) London lecture/s, South Kensington Museum?

March 22 Royal Institution WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, Friday, March 22, 1889. Colonel J. A. Grant, C.B. C.S.I. F.R.S. Vice-President, in the Chair. Eadweard Muybridge, Esq. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to design in Art, (Illustrated by the Zoopraxiscope.) [NOTICES OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE MEETINGS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE Royal Institution of Great Britain, WITH ABSTRACTS OF THE DISCOURSES DELIVERED AT THE EVENING MEETINGS. VOLUME XII. 1887-1889.]

March 22 HOW ANIMALS WALK AND RUN, Pall Mall Gazette, (London), Issue 7492. Interview[?] with Mr. Muybridge.

March 23 Pall Mall Gazette 'Menagerie of Muybridge the Magician'. Amusing account of lecture.

March 23 THE COURT, The Graphic (London), Issue 1008. 'Last (Friday) night the Prince was expected to attend Mr. Muybridge's lecture.'

March 27 Letter, E. Muybridge, 38 Craven St., Charing Cross, London, to Frederick A. Eaton. Date 27 Mar 1889. Expressing thanks for the recognition of the President and Council of the value of his investigation, and referring to the enclosure by him of a receipt for a cheque received from the RA. [Royal Academy of Arts ref:RAA/SEC/6/40/2]

March 29 Pall Mall Gazette. Report of 2nd lecture, Lecture Theatre, South Kensington Museums.

March 29 Photographic News (quoting London Globe) 'Scientifically ... most interesting .. we doubt whether the contribution to art will be of much importance.' [ Hendricks 206]

March 30 Morning Post ARRANGEMENTS FOR THIS DAY. Science and Art Lectures - Mr. E. Muybridge on "The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art," illustrated by illuminated photographs. Lecture theatre, South Kensington Museum, 3.

May 2 lecture at Royal Institution, London, 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art'. [NOTICES OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE MEETINGS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE Royal Institution of Great Britain, WITH ABSTRACTS OF THE DISCOURSES DELIVERED AT THE EVENING MEETINGS. VOLUME XII. 1887-1889, p.145 list of forthcoming lectures. Apparently a notice of lectures, 2 and 8 May, to be given to the Institution (following his lecture of 22 March). Found during web search 2010. ]

May 8 lecture to Royal Society, Burlington House, London. [Herbert]

May 9 lecture at Royal Institution, London, 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art'. [Listed under 'courses of lectures', so this is most likely second part of May 2 lecture]

May 9 Daily News (London) account of Royal Society lecture.

May 9 LAST NIGHT AT THE ROYAL SOCIETY The Pall Mall Gazette (London), Thursday, May 9, 1889; Issue 7532. Lecture: ' veritable schoolboys'.

May 10 British Journal of Photography p.316, 'Projecting Life-like Motions' by G. R. Baker, includes description of zoopraxiscope, etc.

May 12 New York Times 'London Facts and Talk.' 'The Royal Society conversazione at Burlington House, on Wednesday night, was exceedingly interesting. There were more tables than one could begin intelligently to inspect in one evening, every one illustrating the latest advancement in some special science. ...Two of the exhibits [including] ... one of automatic electric photography, by Muybridge, were American products.' [New York Times archive online]

May 23 Nature 'The Muybridge Photographs' (Review of Animal Locomotion, etc), by zoologist Sir Edwin Ray Lankester. [Hecht 340T]

before May 25 Watercolour by British artist Thomas Walter Wilson (1851-1912) painted: Muybridge lecturing. Original signed by the artist, and signed and dedicated by Muybridge 'To Rose 25 May 89'. [Herbert, cover]

May 25 Royal Society lecture reported - including cover picture, an engraving adapted from the T. Walter Wilson watercolour - in the Illustrated London News. 'Muybridge's photographs of animal motion' p.647, reviews his motion photography to date. A montage of images based on Muybridge's photographs forms an accompanying page. This is an engraving, signed bottom right 'F. Naumann' (?), but T. Walter Wilson's signature bottom left indicates that this artwork was produced in the intermediate form of a watercolour painting. Muybridge's London address given as 38, Craven-street, Charing-cross.

June 19 Ladies Night at Royal Society, London. Muybridge 'gave demonstrations'.

June 20 Daily News (London) account of Ladies Night at RS.

June 24 Morning Post (Monday) report of Royal Geographical Society's Conversazione "On Saturday night" (i.e. 22 June). Muybridge projected images at intervals during the reception.

June [date?] Nature 'The Muybridge Photographs', Ray E. Lankester (Volume 40, Issue 1023, pp. 126). '... Allow me to state, in order to save correspondence due to the omission of a publisher's name in connection with the Muybridge photographs (NATURE, May 23, p. 78), that they may be seen and ordered of Mr. Muybridge, at 38 Craven Street, Strand, London.'

July 6 'Conversazione at St. Thomas's Hospital', British Medical Journal Report of Conversazione at St. Thomas's Hospital (London). 'The members of the Medical and Physical Society belonging to St. Thomas's Hospital entertained last week a large number of their friends in the Governor's Hall..... [Many old medical books were displayed, and] Mr Muybridge exhibited electro-photographic apparatus for the investigation of animal locomotion.' (p.51). Was this camera shutters? Zoopraxiscope?

July 26 Newark Daily Advocate (Ohio) '... upon The magic Lantern screen a rapid succession of those strange caricature looking and, in so doing, gave perfect pictures of the animals in motion. ...' [Google News Archive search]

late August lecture Photographic Convention of Great Britain, St James's Hall, London. 'tremendous applause ... the most wonderful revelation of the age.' [Herbert 124] [Hendricks 213] [Coe M & C 22]

August 21 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CONVENTION OF 1889 The Pall Mall Gazette (London,) Wednesday, August 21, 1889; Issue 7621. 'Mr Muybridge's ... zoopraxiscope...'

August 23 British Journal of Photography p.555-556. '...The hall was crowded and many were unable to obtain seats. Mr. Muybridge's remarks and illustrations were of the highest value, but when the animals were thrown on the screen in actual (thaumatropical) motion it "brought down the house." Nothing could be better....'

August 24 THE VISIT OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION TO NEWCASTLE The Newcastle Weekly Courant (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Saturday, August 24, 1889; Issue 11197. 'Mr Muybridge....projections...'

September lectures, Newcastle, (arranged by British Association?) [Herbert]

September 7 THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION The Leeds Mercury Saturday, September 7, 1889; Issue 16044. 'Mr E. Muybridge will lecture...'

September 11 Edwardsville Intelligencer '... HORSES of a year or two ago with those last month and tell me if you don't think the old ones gave a better idea of the beauty of the animals in motion. ...' (Muybridge?) [Google News Archive search]

September 12 and 17 lecture at conversaziones, Newcastle (Natural History Museum?), arranged by British Association.

September 13 The Scotsman: 'BRITISH ASSOCIATION' (Newcastle lecture report?) [The Scotsman digital archive online]

September 13 THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION The Leeds Mercury Friday, September 13, 1889; Issue 16049. 'Large audience hear the lecture by Mr. Muybridge.' (Newcastle lecture).

September 27 BJP reports on Newcastle lectures. First lecture 'he could not be heard in the corridor to which he had been relegated, nor could the wonderful pictures ... be seen'. Problem resolved with second lecture, 'audience were delighted and astonished...' [Herbert 124]

October 3 FOURTH EDITION The Pall Mall Gazette (London), Thursday, October 3, 1889; Issue 7658. 'One of the features of the entertainment...Mr. Muybridge.'

October 4 British Journal of Photography p.651. 'Every evening lantern slide exhibitions were given, and slides of great beauty were shown. Pre-eminent amongst these displays was Mr. E. M. Muybridge's lecture on animal locomotion, profusely illusrrate d by the optical lantern, and also by an instrument specially constructed for the purpose and called the zoopraxiscope.'

October 14 New York Times 'TAKING PICTURES FOR FUN.' 'The members of the Society of Amateur Photography at a recent meeting were much interested in a number of instantaneous pictires of animals and objects in motion made by Ottomar Anschuetz of Lissa, Prussia. Herr Anschuetz has gone into the subject even more deeply than Muybridge and Marey, and for months has been expperimentimg in instantaneous work and the use of quick developers...' [New York Times archive online]

October 28 lecture to the Literary and Philosophical Society 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Design in Art', The Music Hall, Surrey Street, Sheffield. [Herbert]

November 7 lecture to Bristol Naturalists' Society, Victoria Rooms, Bristol, to audience of 'upwards of 400'. [Herbert 125]

November 8 lecture at the [University?] Museum, Oxford.

November 9 MR. MUYBRIDGE ON ANIMAL LOCOMOTION Jackson's Oxford Journal Saturday, November 9, 1889; Issue 7128. 'On Friday evening...Mr Muybridge...gave a lecture.'

November 17 ALS (letter) to A. E. Jessup, Esq., 38 Craven St., Charing Cross, London.[Herman W. Liebert Manuscript Collection. General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.]

November 21 lecture 'Wellington School' (Wellington College, Crowthorne, Berkshire) to the boys of the Natural Science Society. [Herbert]

November 22 BJP announces forthcoming lecture at Bath, 'under the auspices of the Major of Bath and the Presidents and Officers of all the local scientific and art societies, including the Bath Photographic Society.' [Herbert 126]

November 26 Leeds Daily News advert for lecture in the Albert Hall following day. [Herbert 125]

November 27 lecture Leeds, to Leeds Mechanics' Institution, and Literary Society. [Herbert]

November 28 The Cambridge Review, 28 November 1889, p.110: PUBLIC SCHOOL NEWS. WELLINGTON. 'Last Thursday, we had a lecture from Mr. Muybridge, who, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, has for several years made a special study of animals in motion. The lecture, illustrated with numerous instantaneous photographs of animals in motion in various positions, many consecutive photos being taken in a fraction of a second, was most interesting and instructive; and in many places too, highly amusing. Many of us heard for the first time that the horse in the famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius in Rome was in an impossible position; as of course are those in London and Paris which have been copied from it; and as for the pictures, well, an artist is not a realist.'

November 30 Leeds Saturday Journal 'Whispers of the Week': '...One of the results of his research is a book he desires to sell at the modest price of one hundred pounds per copy.' [Herbert]

December 2 lecture, Assembly Rooms, Bath. [Herbert]

December 12 TO-DAY Daily News (London, England), Thursday, December 12, 1889; Issue 13630. 'Lectures- E.Muybridge...London Institution.' [Web search: 'Finsbury-circus, E.C. at 6pm' ]

December lecture at the London Institution. (Not Royal Institution). [Adams. W.P., BJP vol 36 p.826] [Hecht 336G] [possibly Dec 12th -see: English Mechanic p.176??]

December 20 BJP includes 'Muybridge at the London Institution,' extensive piece by W. P. Adams. [Hamilton bibliog]

Also in 1889,
Cyclopaedia of the Diseases of Children Keating, John M. (J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia). Four volumes (1889 on copyright page, 1890 on title page) (including a series of photographs by Eadweard Muybridge in Volume 4). BL entry: Cyclopaedia of the Diseases of Children, Medical and Surgical ... Edited by J. M. Keating. Illustrated. (Supplement. Edited by W. A. Edwards.) 5 vol. Y. J. Pentland: Edinburgh & London; Philadelphia [printed], 1889-99.

** Library Chronicle: Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Library Association. Library, 1889; s1-1: 377 - 399. [......reception Committee gave a conversazione in Stationers' Hall, which was largely attended and was thoroughly enjoyed. Mr. Eadweard Muybridge, of animal locomotion celebrity, had very generously volunteered his services for the evening, and his lecture, illustrated....]

** (1889) English photographer P.H. Emerson writes' ... nothing is more inartistic than some positions of a galloping horse, such as are never seen by the eye yet exist in reality, and have been recorded by Mr. Muybridge.' [Ayers]

** lecture at Cambridge? [The Cambridge Review 1889, p.110: Last Thursday, we had a lecture from Mr. Muybridge....]


January 4 Pick-Me-Up (UK) publishes Muybridge-inspired cartoon by George Roller. [Courtesy of website ' Yesterday's Papers' ]

January 7 Liverpool Daily Post advertises 'associated soiree' - Muybridge lecture only a part. [Herbert 126]

January 8 lecture in small concert-room, St George's Hall, Liverpool. [Hendricks 213]

January 9 the Associated Societies' Soiree of Jan 8 reported, Liverpool Daily Post. [Herbert 150]

January 11 Liverpool Weekly Mercury account of Jan 8 Liverpool lecture. [Herbert 150]

January 18 'La Chronophotographie' published in La Nature No.868 (p96-98), by Albert Londe. (Mostly about Marey, but mentions Muybridge).

January and February Manchester lectures. [Hendricks 213]

January 22 (Weds) Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, p.1 advert. for lecture.

January 23 (Thurs), Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, p.7. THE SCIENCE OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION. 'Mr. E. Muybridge, of the University of Pennsylvania, delivered a lecture at the Manchester Athenaeum last evening, on the Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art.'

January lecture prospectus published in England, The Science of animal locomotion in its relation to design in art: 'syllabus of a course of two lectures.. when one lecture alone is given it consists of a condensed edition.'.[Scrap]

January 25 East Anglian Daily Times advert for February 3 Ipswich lecture. [Herbert 150]

January 25 Advertisements & Notices, The Ipswich Journal Saturday, January 25, 1890; Issue 9220. Classified ads. 'A Lecture will be given by Eadweard Muybridge...'

January 27, Lecture at Grantham.

January 28 1890, report on lecture, Nottingham Evening Post. LECTURE AT GRANTHAM 'Last night, in connection with local science and art lcasses, a lecture was given in the Theatre, Grantham... 'The Movements of Aninmals.' '...Mr. Muybridge's reputation had preceded him, as evidenced by the large audience then present.'

January 28 The Belfast News-Letter (Belfast, Ireland), Tuesday, January 28, 1890; Issue 23264. 'Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society have secured the celebrated scientist, Mr. Eadward Muybridge (sic)...for their next popular lecture, middle of next month.'

February 'Experiences of Professor Eadweard Muybridge': report of an interview with Muybridge, in the Optical Magic Lantern Journal. [Hecht 351H]

February 1 Advertisements & Notices, The Ipswich Journal Saturday, February 1, 1890; Issue 9221. Classified ads. 'A Lecture will be given by Eadweard Muybridge...'

February 3 lecture at Lecture Hall, Tower Street, Ipswich, arranged by the Scientific Society. [Herbert 127]

February 4 East Anglian Daily Times account of Feb 3 Ipswich lecture. [Herbert 150]

February 10 Irish Times advert for Dublin lectures. [Herbert]

February 11 Advertisements & Notices The Belfast News-Letter (Belfast, Ireland), Tuesday, February 11, 1890; Issue 23276. 'Popular Lecture Series...Eadweard Muybridge...Two separate lectures...'

February 11 lecture, The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Art and Design, Hall of Young Men's Christian Association, arranged by Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Association. Belfast. [Herbert]

February 11 letter, from John [Charles] Van Dyke [1861-1931], Theological Seminary, New Brunswick, New Jersey, to Rev. Jesse Burk, [Secretary of the University] Univ of Pennsylvania. Includes: "I am delighted with the prospect of getting one of Mr. Muybridge's slides of the running horse and feel very grateful to both you and Dr. Pepper for kind interest in the matter. I had about given up the search..." etc. (Includes sketches of horse position required). [Archives, Univ of Penn, Box 62 FF6 Correspondence re Muybridge]

February 12 Belfast News-Letter report of Feb 11 lecture. [Herbert]

February 12 lecture Royal Dublin Society, lecture theatre, Leinster House, Kildare St, Dublin. [Herbert]

February 13 lecture Belfast. [Herbert 128]

February 13 ANIMAL LOCOMOTION, Freeman's Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser (Dublin, Ireland), Thursday, February 13, 1890; 'The Zoopraxiscope. Mr. Eadweard Muybridge's lecture...given yesterday at four o’ of the Royal Dublin Society House...'

February 13 (Thurs) Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser '...Muybridge will repeat his LECTURE .... Concert Hall, Peter-street, on Friday evening, February 21st.'

February 14 Belfast News-Letter report of Feb 13 lecture, Operator: Mr Webster. [Herbert]

February 14 lecture Royal Dublin Society, lecture theatre, Leinster House, Kildare St, Dublin.

February 17 lecture Dublin, for Photographic Society of Ireland, Antient Concert Rooms, Great Brunswick Street. [Herbert 129]

February 17 DUBLIN Freeman's Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser(Ireland), Monday, February 17, 1890. Report of lecture.

February 20 (Thurs) Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. Advertisement for Muybridge lecture, Friday evening.

February 21Lecture, Concert Hall, Peter-street Manchester, Friday evening, February 21st.

February 24 (Mon), Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, p.6. 'On Friday evening Professor Muybridge repeated his illustrated lecture on Animal Locomotion ... Gentlemen's Concert Hall, Manchester, before a large audience.'

February 24 Advertisements & Notices, Glasgow Herald Monday, February 24, 1890; Issue 47. Classified ads. Advertisement for Muybridge lecture.

February 26 Lecture, Queen's Rooms Glasgow 'under the auspices of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow'. [The Scotsman digital archive online]

February 27 'THE SCIENCE OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION IN RELATION TO ART DESIGN'. The Scotsman report of lecture 'last evening' by 'Mr. E. Maybridge' (sic). [The Scotsman digital archive online]

February 27 lecture Queen's Rooms, Glasgow, for the Glasgow Philosophical Society, acting as the Glasgow Science Lectures Association Trust. (Was this in fact the lecture held on 26th?). [Herbert 129]

February 27 ANIMAL LOCOMOTION AND DESIGN IN ART, Glasgow Herald, Thursday, February 27, 1890; Issue 50. Report of Muybridge lecture.

February 27 Birmingham Daily Post (England), Thursday, February 27, 1890; Issue 9884. Natural History Society...notice of forthcoming Muybridge lecture/s.

March 1 Glasgow Herald, Saturday, March 1, 1890; Issue 52. PROFESSOR MUYBRIDGE AT THE ART CLUB. 'Professor Muybridge ... lecture last evening.' Lecture was to members of the Glasgow Art Club. Mentions a previous lecture in the Queen's Rooms "on Tuesday evening", and "the lecture will be repeated under the auspices of the Art Club next week".

March 4 (Tues) Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, p.8. MUNICIPAL NOTES. '....Mr. Muybridge's instantaneous photographs of animals in motion. These will be of great use to artists and scientific investigators, and cannot be considered dearly bought for £105, as they consist no less than 780 plates and fill 11 folio volumes...'

March 6 Advertisements & Notices, Glasgow Herald, Thursday, March 6, 1890; Issue 56. Classified ads. 'lecture...Professor Muybridge...tonight...'

March 11, 13, 14 Birmingham Daily Post news/reports of lectures. [Herbert 150 n.141]

March 12 lecture Birmingham, The Motions of Animals, Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, Town Hall. [Herbert 128]

March 13 lecture Mason College, Birmingham. 'Mr Maybridge [sic] said he would state quite frankly that his chief object in coming to England was not to lecture but to sell his book..'. [Herbert 129]

March 14 lecture Birmingham, The Motions of Animals, Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, Town Hall. '... second in a course of two lectures'. [Herbert] also: The Midland Naturalist: Journal of the Midland Union of Natural History v.13-14 1890-1891. 'The Council refer with special pleasure to the Muybridge Lectures on the 'Motion of Animals', illustrated by remarkably fine lantern views, that were delivered on March 12th....' ,

April 1 query re: availability of Zoopraxiscope discs, in Optical Magic Lantern Journal.

April 1 Western Electrician reports on Edison magic lantern (tachyscope?) 'press preview' projection by W.K.L. Dickson (for Edison) of 'actual performances of living persons', Lenox Lyceum exhibition, New York City. Posssibly copies of Muybridge Animal Locomotion series used. (Not shown to public). [Hend EMPM 93] (Possibly journalist anticipating something that had been expected but didn't actually happen? In same way as reports of kinetoscope at World's Fair?)

April 27 Galveston Daily News "... by the discovery of the instantaneous process of photography, by which animals In motion or a cannon ball flying through The air have been photographed. ..." (Muybridge? check) [Goodle News Archive search]

May 9 two lectures, 3pm and 8pm, Royal Concert Hall, Hastings. Under the auspices of the Hastings and St. Leonards Photographic Society. Hastings and St. Leonards News, 9 May 1890.

May 10 The Hastings and St. Leonards Observer "The lecture, which was illustrated with views from the zoophaxiscope [sic] (which instrument is a wonderful invention of his own) was rather poorly attended, even considering the bad state of the weather."

Summer returns to United States. [Herbert]

July 23 1890 (Weds) Burnley Express 'The Directors of the Burnley Mechanics' Institute are making arrangements for the usual series of lectures ... an address will be given by Mr. Muybridge....'

August 22 'in New York.' [Hendricks 213]

late Summer/early Autumn back in England. [Herbert]

September 22 BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND INSTITUTE PROGRAMME, Birmingham Daily Post (England), Monday, September 22, 1890; Issue 10061. "Mr. Muybridge...will lecture..."

October 4 COMING EVENTS, The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, Saturday, October 4, 1890; Issue 13228. "Lectures Wednesday and Friday next". Advertisements & Notices. Classified ads. "The Bristol and West of England Amateur Photographic Association. Professor Muybridge will deliver a course of two lectures..."

October 4 1890 (Sat) Burnley Express Advert: 'Lectures for the People' (Assembly Room). List includes : 'Thursday Dec. 4th 'Animal Locomnotion in its relation to design in Art,' Professor EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE. Illustrated synthetically with the Zoopraxiscope.'

October 6 1890 (Mon) Gloucester Citizen, Gloucester Literary and Scientific Association advert. 'Engagements are pending with the following and other lecturers... MR. EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE - 'The Science of Animal Locomotion,' illustrated by the zoopraxis-cope....'

October 8 The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, Wednesday, October 8, 1890; Issue 13231. "Will give first of a series of two lectures..."

October 8 lecture, Bristol.

October 9 ANIMAL LOCOMOTION, The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post Thursday; Issue 13232. Report of Muybridge lecture.

October 10 lecture, Bristol.

October 11 The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, Saturday, October 11, 1890; Issue 13234. Report of Muybridge lecture.

October 13 The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post Monday, October 13, 1890; Issue 13235. Report of Muybridge lecture.

October 13 lecture Birmingham. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art (pt 1), Midland Institute. [Herbert]

October 14 THE BIRMINGHAM FABIAN SOCIETY (?), Birmingham Daily Post (England), Tuesday, October 14, 1890; Issue 10080. Report of Muybridge lecture 'last evening'.

October 20 lecture Birmingham. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art (pt 2), Midland Institute. [Herbert]

October 23 1890 (Thurs) Gloucester Citizen, Gloucester Literary and Scientific Association advert. 'The Committee have the pleasure to announce ..... Thursday, December 11th, MR. EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE - 'The Science of Animal Locomotion,'...'

November 1 1890 (Sat) Dundee Courier, Advert: The Armitstead Lectures .... Kinnaird Hall.... THURSDAY EVENING, 27th NOVEMBER, 1890. LECTURE III - 'THE SCIENCE OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION IN ITS RELATION TO DESIGN IN ART' (illustrated with analytical projections by the oxy-hydrogen light, and synthesis by the Zoopraxiscope).

November 27 lecture Kinnaird Hall, Dundee, one of the Armitstead Lectures. [Herbert 130]

November 28 1890 Dundee Courier, 'ARMITSTEAD LECTURE. The third lecture of the present season's Armitstead course was delivered last night in the Kinnaird Hall. Mr. J.D. Cox, the President of the Dundee and East of Scotland Photographic Association, occupied the chair, and, despite the inclemency of the weather, there was a large attendance, the hall being completely filled. ...'

November 29 Cheltenham Looker-On Natural Science Society, advertisement for lecture 'The Science of Animal Locomotion', Corn Exchange, Tuesday Dec. 9th, 8pm. Chairman Dr. Edward T. Wilson, President of the Society.

December 2 Dundee Advertiser includes advertisement for the periodical Piper O'Dundee '- Portraits - Late Rev. Dr Hannay, Prof. Eadweard Muybridge...'

December 4 lecture, Burnley Mechanics' Institution, Burnley.

December 6, 1890 (Sat) Burnley Express p.5 'HOW MEN AND WOMEN WALK. ARTISTIC FALLACIES EXPOSED. At the Burnley Mechanics' Institution, on Thursday evening, the last of the series of 'lectures for the people' was given by Professor Eadweard Muybridge, of the University of Pennyslvania, U.S.A., to a large gathering...' (Dr. Brumwall presided.) '...the lecturer was an original investigator, who had used in one summer alone 50,000 photographic plates...'

December 8 1890 (Mon), Gloucester Citizen, 'Under the auspices of the Literary and Scientific Association, Mr Eadweard Muybridge lectures at the Gloucester Corn exchange to-night on "The science of animal locomotion in its relation to design in art".' [Cheltenham]

December 9 1890 (Tues) Gloucester Citizen 'GLOUCESTER LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. (last evening)...the Corn Exchange was crowded, the attraction being a lecture by Mr. Eadweard Muybridge on 'The Science of Animal Locomoption in its Relation to Design in Art.' ... 'One other word. The corporation ought really to keep their rats in better order than to allow them to career about the Corn Exchange on public ocasions. The appearance of these rodents (whom a long succession of corn markets seems to have rendered enterprising to a most impudent and unpleasant degree) upon the screen last night would have been appropriate, and they might have served a useful purpose as illustrations of Mr. Muybridge's points; but their practical demonstrations on the floor of the laws of animal locomotion - whatever relation it may have borne to their design and art - not only proved somewhat terrifying to ladies in the audience, but distracted attention from the lecturer and his subject. In the zoopraxiscope they would have been tolerable, even amusing and instructive; dodging among chair and other legs they constituted a nuisance and a cause of legitimate complaint.'

December 9 lecture, Gloucester Corn Exchange.

December 10 1890 (Wed) Gloucester Citizen. 'CHELTENHAM NEWS. THE SCIENCE OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION. - On Tuesday night, at the Corn Exchange, Mr. Eadweard Muybridge delivered his lecture on 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to its Design in Art,' under the auspices of the Natural Science Society. The attendance was but scanty. Dr. E.T. Wilson, the president of the society, performed the duties of chairman, and at the close expressed his own thanks and pleasure and those of the audience for the very entertaining lecture.'

December 10 1890 (Wed) Burnley Express. Professor Muybridge greatly interested and astonished his Burnley audience last week by his illustrations of the manner in which men and animals walk ... Although the Professor has turned his attention to both men and animals, there is a vast field of research he has not yet touched, viz. the football field. Would his batteries of continuous-instantaneous-electro-cameras reveal when a man is "off-side," when "hands" ought to be given, or where there has been a[n] intention to "foul?" If so, they are worthy the attention of referees - that is those who are anxious for just decisions. They would form, too, a source of amusement for the football-loving public, for look how charming some of "Captain Lang's" mid-air leaps would appear, while Lambie's rushes and Hill's dodges would shine to perfection.----- If the Professor's batteries had been in operation at Turf Moor on Saturday afternoon, and one or two of the home players could have seen themselves as they actually appeared at certain critical periods during the first half, there is every reason to believe that the object lesson would have proved beneficial both to them and the club.' (etc)

December 11 Advertisements & Notices, Liverpool Mercury, Thursday, December 11, 1890; Issue 13394. Classified ads. Town Hall, Bootle - Muybridge lecture advert: "tomorrow evening".

December 12 lecture at Bootle Town Hall.

December 15 (Mon), Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, p.7. CONVERSAZIONE AT OWENS COLLEGE. 'Mr. Muybridge gave an exhibition of instantaneous photographs in the Council Chamber... '

December 15 1890 (Mon) Liverpool Mercury BOOTLE FREE LIBRARY AND MUSEUM - TO THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY Gentlemen - May I call the attention of your readers to the lecture by professor Muybridge, announced in your advertising columns. The Bootle Free Library and Museum Committee are endevouring to raise additional funds for the purchase of books and pictures, that they may develop the institutions under their charge more rapidly than the limitation of their income to on penny in the pound on the assessment allows,. They have therefore arranged for a lecturer of note to come down occasionally, and in doing so have provided the Bootle public with an opportunity of hearing superior lecturers at a small cost while helping the funds of a worthy institution. Professor Muybridge has earned the highest praise wherever he has gone, and his zoopraxiscope illustrations for a marvellous gallery of moving pictures, and should prove a formidable rival to the attractions of a circus or hippodrome. JOHN LYON / Chairman Free Library and Museum Committee, Bootle. Dec. 11, 1890.

December 17 lecture at Manchester Town Hall.

December 18, 1890 (Thurs), Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, p.6. 'Eadweard Muybridge delivered his extremely interesting lecture on animal locomotion. The Mayor of Manchester (Alderman John Mark) presided, and there was a crowded audience. ...oxy-hydrogen light and the zoopraxiscope....'

December 18 Manchester Guardian 'Manchester Public Free Libraries Lecture. Mr. Eadweard Muybridge gave his lecture on "Animal Locomotion" at the Manchester Town Hall last night, in presence of a large audience. The Mayor (Mr. Alderman Mark) presided, and in introducing the lecturer said he thought the Corporation had acted wisely in securing a series of Mr. Muybridge's plates illustrative of animal locomotion for the free libraries.'

Also in 1890
** Library notes and news. Library [OUP periodical], 1890; s1-2: 160 - 165.......Chetham Library. MANCHESTER.--The Free Library Committee have ordered for the Free Reference Library a complete set of Mr. Muybridge's instantaneous photographs of animals in motion...].

** also in 1890 [? Or possibly November 1889, when he is known to have lectured elsewhere in Bristol]: lecture in Bristol. 'Mr. H. A. Hood Daniel, F.S.I., of Keynsham Manor, Somerset, the President of the Bristol and West of England Amateur Photographic Association... is always willing to lend his help and influence to further the science; only within the last few weeks, through his instrumentality Professor Muybridge was induced to deliver his lecture upon 'Animal Locomotion,' illustrated by the 'Zoopraxiscope,' at the Colston Hall, Bristol.' Text by Charles W Hastings, editor of 'The Photographic Societies' Reporter,' 'Amateur Photographer,' 'Photographic Quarterly,' etc. []


January 24 lecture at the Hotel de la Societe de Geographie in Paris, on the "Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Design in Art."

February 19 Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser for 19 February 1891, includes an advertisement for a lecture to be given in Manchester on the 27th.

February 27 Lecture, Manchester.

February 28 San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin 'ART AND ARTISTS. Eadweard Muybridge lectured at the Hotel de la Societe de Geographie in Paris, January 24th, on the "Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Design in Art." Mr. Bartholdi presided, assisted by Professor Elwall, and the hall of the Societe was filled with a brilliant audience, which included large number of the most distinguished artists in Paris.'

** lectures in Germany.

March 9 lecture at Urania theatre Berlin, audience of 500. [Rossell, Chronology 122] [Hendricks says 'March 21st for several lectures'.]

March 10 Chicago Tribune 'General Foreign News. A Pennsylvanian in Berlin. BERLIN, March 9- Prof. Muybridge of the University of Pennsylvania upon invitation delivered a lecture at the Urania Inbstitute this evening on "Animal Locomotion." The lecture was illustrated by "snap-shot" photographs of animals in motion. In the audience were Dr. von Gossler, the Minister of Educational Affairs, and about 500 artists and scientists, who followed the lecturer with deep interest, although he spoke in English.'

April 2 Anschutz (in his own lecture) says he had 'not expected anything so deficient.' [Hecht 361C]

April 24 Edinburgh Evening News PROFESSOR MUYBRIDGE, in acknowledging receipt of a medal awarded him by the Edinburgh Association of Science and Art, in recognition of his investigations into animal locomotion, writes: Altough not conscious of being deserving of this great honour, I am very grateful for its generous appreciation of my efforts to teach the artist the value of a knowledge of the facts of animal movements before he seeks his impressions of them from nature.

April Photographische Correspondenz, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

May 9 p.214 Anthony's Photographic Bulletin notes Berlin lecture/s. [Hendricks 214]

**Technische Hochschule lecture?

May Photographische Correspondenz, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

** Critical review of lectures by Bruno Meyer, in Deutsches Photographen-Zeitung Nos. 12, 14, 15. [Herbert]

June 5 New York Times 'BOOKS SOLD AT AUCTION: Muybridge's collection of plates, illustrating animal locomotion by means of electric photographs, was sold for $24.' [New York Times archive online]

June 13 Harper's Weekly article by Lathrop (on Edison) mentions Muybridge exposure times. [Hend EMPM 10]

June Manufacturer and Builder, 'Edison's Kinetograph' 'If Mr. Edison is correctly reported, he exhibits in this statement an unaccountable ignorance of Mr Muybridge's wonderful work in this direction, with which the entire scientific world is quite familiar. The adaptation of Mr Muybridge's series of pictures to the projecting lantern have been shown in nearly every large city in this country as well as in Europe....' (etc) [The Making of America collection at:]

July Photographische Correspondenz, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

July 1 Birmingham Daily Post ' Mr. Muybridge, whose illustrations of the science of animal locomotion in its relation to design in art have made him famous, will not be able to come to England this year, as he had intended, owing to the number of his engagements in Austria and other Continental countries.'

July 15 letter to J. Y. Burk, from Berlin, re: his positive reception, etc.(wrong date on website). Muybridge's address: c/o J B Lippincott Co, 10 Henrietta St, Covent Garden, London.

July Photographische Correspondenz, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

July Manufacturer and Builder 'The Muybridge Pictures of Animals in Motion' (letter). Correspondent wants to know "... if Mr. Muybridge's projection apparatus has ever been described, or if it can be purchased anywhere? - F.S.., New York." [The Making of America collection at:]

** Reviews of Muybridge lectures 'excellent'. 'Only the discerning eye of Ottomar Anschutz discovered many a fault'. [Hecht 361C]

August 1 'Etudes sur la locomotion animale: travaux de M. Muybridge', by Gaston Tissandier, in La Nature No.948. With four engravings based on Muybridge photo sequences.

August Manufacturer and Builder, 'Instantaneous Photography on the Race Track.' First 'photo-finish' photographer appointed. Muybridge mentioned in text.
[The Making of America collection at:]

September 4 BJP includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

October 18 New York Times 'New Books': Recalled to Life by Grant Allen (Henry Holt & Co.), reviewed. 'Mr Callingham has invented what he calls 'the acmegraphic process,' something like the Muybridge plan of taking instantaneous pictures.... One day Mr. Callingham is found murdered......' [New York Times archive online]

November 15 'La chronophotographie: nouvelle methode pour analyser le mouvement dans les sciences pures et naturelles' by E.J. Marey, in Revue Generale des Sciences, includes Muybridge. [Hamilton bibliog] [pdf download here]

** lectures elsewhere in Europe during Spring/Summer, before returning to USA in November. Descriptive Zoopraxography (published 1893) lists: The Society of Artists, Vienna; The Society of Artists, Munich; The Polytechnic High School, Vienna; The Polytechnic High School, Munich; The University of Turin. All must be 1891, but exact dates not known. The following press notices were reproduced in :
'A very large number could not obtain admission, so great was the desire to hear the lecture ... A wonderful surprise even to the careful observer of Nature.' - Die Press, Vienna.
'The lecture was given in the popular manner, with scientific accuracy and artistic taste ... The room was filled to the last corner; nearly all the Royal Family and the Ministers were present.' - Munchener Neueste Nachrichten, Munich.

November 25 returns to America on the Ohio, from Liverpool.

December 7 (?) arrives Philadelphia.

December 19 letter from Edison encouraging idea of insect flight photography. [Hendricks 216]

The Science of Animal Locomotion pamphlet. (c) Kingston Museum

Autumn / Winter? pamphlet, The Science of Animal Locomotion (Zoopraxography): An Electro-Photographic Invesigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements published. [Hecht 362M]

Also in 1891:
** Photographische Nachrichten Band III Nr.12 (Jarhgang 1891), includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]


** THE SAN FRANCISCO ART ASSOCIATION OFFICERS & MEMBERS, 1892 (430 Pine Street, San Francisco, California) listed in The San Francisco Blue Book & Pacific Coast Elite Directory, 1892, The Bancroft Company, San Francisco, 1892. Regular Members list includes: MUYBRIDGE, E.J.

** Library Association Year-Book 1892 (Library Association, London). p.51 list of Ordinary Members MUYBRIDGE (EADWEARD W.), [sic] University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Same listing on p.19 of the 1893 Year-Book. Not listed 1891.

January 24 New York Times page 11, 363 words. 'University of Pennsylvania.' 'Prof. Eadweard Muybridge, whose work on the photography of animals in motion has made him famous, has returned to the University after an absence of many months...'

February 11 letter to David Starr Jordan, President of Leland Stanford Junior University; would they help re: flight of insects research. [Hecht 372B] [Haas 169]

February 11 letter to Lewis Steiner, Baltimore, re: use of professional qualification indicators. And, he has asked Judge Morris to see Mr Pratt re: purchasing set of Animal Locomotion plates for the library. Also, 'I shall probably leave for California within a couple of weeks.' [Lewis H Steiner papers (subseries 3 box 1, folder 22) Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore]

February 15 Thomas J. Morris writes to Enoch Pratt (following Muybridge's request) recommending purchase of set of Animal Locomotion plates for the Enoch Pratt Free Library. '...if you will speak to Dr Steiner he will explain the use of them more fully'. Letter is marked by Pratt: 'Reply to Dr Steiner & [I] wish to see him on subject.' [Lewis H Steiner papers (subseries 3 box 1, folder 22) Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore]

March Muybridge in California. [Haas 169]

March 5 Aspen Weekly Times (Aspen, Pitkin County) 'Aspen's Flying Machine.' '...Professor Edward Muybridge, of the university of Pennsylvania, whose study of animal locomotion, and whose volume on that subject made him famous, a few years ago, has set himself to a new task. He believes he is on the right track toward the construction of a flying machine, and, with the support of such men as Edison, Sir John Lubbock, Von Helmholtz, Sir William Thompson and others, is prepared to push foward his investigations.....scientists feel that a knowledge of the aerial navigation of insects will be the greatest leap forward ... can only be obtained through photography ... the only man who is capable of conducting ... the work...Professor Muybridge...willing to undertake the project...and so stated last night at his residence.' (Extensive comments by Muybridge follow). []

March 20 New York Times 'Amateur Photography' (etc). 'There was an enjoyable evening spent by members of the Salmagundi Club last Friday at their rooms on Twenty-second Street .....A feature of the exhibition was the slides contributed by Prof. Muybridge of animals and figures in motion...' [New York Times archive online]

April 5 letter from room 755 Palace Hotel, San Francisco, to President Jordan (Stanford Univ) re: 2nd thoughts about planned lecture at Palo Alto. [Haas 170]

April 15 (Friday) San Francisco Morning Call, 'Animal Locomotion. Eadweard Muybridge will lecture before the Academy of Sciences on Monday night on the science of animal locomotion, with lantern illustrations of consecutive phases of animal movements and synthetical reproductions by the zooparciscope' [sic] [digital search]

April 16 Summit County Journal (Breckenridge, Summit County) 'The Pictorial Steed' '...the pictorial horse of our childhood - the long, lean, fiery courser...with outstretched neck and a stetch of limb extending over some forty feet. They don't do him any more. When Muybridge got to work with that little snapshot camera of his he knocked the pictorial horse of tradition into a cocked hat...' (reprinted from New York Commercial Advertiser)

April 18 Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) lecture.

April 22 lecture, Art Association, San Francisco.

April 23 'FOR ARTISTS - A Lecture Before the Art Association by Mr. Muybridge ...last evening...' Morning Call (San Francisco). [digital search online]

May 2 draft letter to Stanford re: Stillman / Royal Society situation etc. [Haas 170-172]

May 18 San Francisco Morning Call p.8 : 'The Trustees Meet. The suggestion that a series of lectures on "Animal Locomotion," to be delivered by the celebrated lecturer, Professor E.J. Muybridge, who has discoursed to nearly all the leading institutions in the United States, received favourable indorsement, and was referred to the committee on lectures to report. It is most probable that those lectures will be delivered under the auspices of the Institute...' [online digital search]

June 15 San Francisco Morning Call, p.8 : 'State University Regents. A communication was received from Edward Muybridge requesting the board to examine, with a view to purchasing, his work on animal locomotion. Referred to the library committee.' [online digital search]

June 22 San Francisco Morning Call p.8: 'Mechanics' Institute. Irving M. Scottt, W. K. Vanderslice, Abner Doble and others recommended the purchase of Muybridge's work on animal locomotion as a valuable addition to the library. The communications were placed on file.'

August 5 letters to Leland Stanford re: boxes of apparatus. [Haas 172] [Mozley 133 n.39]

Summer abandons plans for a lecture tour of the East (India and Australia - also Japan?). 'In the Summer of 1892 while the author was in California, preparing for a Lecturing tour through Australia and India, he received an invitation from the Fine Arts Commission of the World's Columbian Exposition to give a series of lectures on Zoopraxography...' [Descriptive Zoopraxography (1893).]

October 19 arranges to give lectures in Zoopraxographical Hall, World's Columbian Exposition. [Haas 174]

November 17 The Emporia Gazette 'MINOR SELECTIONS. The Physiological institute of Berlin has bought a complete edition of the 20,000 instantaneous photographs of men and animals in motion prepared by Edward Muybridge at the University of Pennsylvania.'

December 22 Electrical Wonder Company, London, exhibits Anschuetz's Electrical Schnellseher in specially adapted storefront, the Strand, London. At least 12 machines. Address varies, number of machines varies. This 'Schnellseher Arcade' exhibition seems to have also included discs made up of re-photographed images by Muybridge. These were certainly the work of the Electrical Wonder Company, and not of Anschuetz. Liesegang suggests this in his unpublished biography; there are subjects never known to have been photographed by Anschuetz. Electrical Wonder Company contract with Anschuetz allowed for them to make their own discs if he should fail to supply enough pictures. The Muybridge images were reproduced everywhere. See also: [BJP, Supplement, 1897, 28 & 30] [Rossell email to SH]

Also in 1892:
From The Critic A Weekly Review of Literature and the Arts, p. 195: "The Philadelphia Record is the source of the following item:__ Eadweard Muybridge, the renowned author of "Animal Locomotion," was in town yesterday for a few hours. "I have just returned from California," he said, "where I have been lecturing on "Animal Locomotion." I have already delivered 200 lectures upon the subject in Europe, and I am now in the midst of a long tour [etc]....."

Publication of the first English language editon of De l'Extérieur du cheval (based on the second, revised edition): Exterior of the Horse, Armand Goubaux and Gustave Barrier, Plates arranged by G. Nicolet, translated and edited by Simon J.J. Harger. Philadelphia and London: J.B. Lippincott. Includes drawings by Jules Lenoble du Teil, based on Muybridge's Palo Alto horse sequences.

Key to references [in square brackets]