THE COMPLEAT EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE: CHRONOLOGY 1883-1887


Key to references [in square brackets]

Go to: 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888

1883

January 7 New York Times 'CITY AND SUBURBAN NEWS....' 'Mr. Edward Muybridge will lecture The Union League Club on Tuesday evening, at 8:30 o clock, on "The Romance and Realities of Animal Locomotion," illustrating his remarks by means of the zoopraxiscope.' [New York Times archive online]

January 9 Union League Club, New York lecture. [Hendricks 149]

January 10 New York Times 'Caught in the act; the curiosities of picture of the movements of men and animals.' Page 5, 508 words. 'Eadweard Muybridge spoke last evening of the "romance and reality of animals in locomotion" to a large and enthusiastic audience in the hall of the Union League Club. The lecture was illustrated by stereopticon and zoopraxiscope pictures thrown on a screen and representing horses in motion while trotting, running, and leaping, and ...' [New York Times online]

January 11 The Nation, '...Mr. March Phillips, in his capital 'horse and Man,' plain, every-day English. Mr. Anderson says that the gallop is "a. succession of leaps." Muybridge's ...' (somehwat scrambled text - needs to be checked) [Google newspaper archive search]

January Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

January 29 Reno Evening Gazette, Reno, Nevada. 'Horse in MOTION.' New York Sun article - see also Jan 30 Salt Lake Tribune, same piece.

January 30 Salt Lake Tribune Salt Lake Daily Tribune 'MUYBRIDGE VS STANFORD. Suit of the Artist for Damages for the Governor's Horse Book.' 'NEW YORK, Jan 29(?). - The Sun has the following. There is a case in court which is regarded by turfmen and others with much interest. The case alluded to to is "Muybridge vs. Stanford." It is to be tried in Boston. Muybridge is the photographer who took the plates for Ex-Governor Leland Stanford of California, to be used in his work picturing the horse in motion, as shown by instantaneous photography. Persons well informed in the matter say the work has cost Stanford many thousands of dollars more than its sale has produced, one authority placing the figures at $?,000, and that he paid liberally for the services rendered in the production of the book. They further say that since the publication of the work, Muybridge considers himself the author, and claims damages for being unrepresented on the title page, and ignored in parts of the book, and that he is not satisfied with the credit given him in the preface, [--] Mr. Stanford's signature.
Muybridge - here told a reporter he had taken the action aganst Sanford in the Massachussets courts - he was adverse to making the matter public, but that while he had the warmest personal feelings toward Stanford and acknowledged his [--], he was compelled to defend his own professional reputation. (etc, etc..).
Stanford ... smiled when our reporter announced his errand. Motioning to a chair, he said, "Sit down, and I will give you the facts in the case. [more here]

February 2 New York Times 'Animal progression in court; Leland Stanford charged with stealing Mr. Muybridge's ideas.' Page 5, 386 words. ' - BOSTON, Feb. 1.--A case of interest, especially to literary and art people, has been entered in the Suffolk County Superior Court here. Edweard Muybridge, the lecturer on the theory of animal progression, has brought suit against Leland Stanford, ex-Governor of California, well known as a lover of horses and a student of their habits and breeding. The suit is instituted to recover $50,000...' [New York Times online
http://select.nytimes.com]

February 3 writes to Academy of Fine Arts re: projection requirements. [Hendricks 149-52]

February 3 Otago Witness ''Scientific' - What will be the legitimate effect of instantaneous photography on art? is a question which has excited a good deal of ignorant as well as learned comment, Mr Muybridge's excellent photographs of men and horses in motion affording, of course, the chief basis of argument. ... [re: wrong representations]: Perhaps trhe best refutation thus far advanced is found in a recent number of Punch, which attempts to depict the "finish" of the Derby according to Muybridge. Anything more unlike a group of running horses can hardly be imagined...'

February 6 second letter to Academy of Fine Arts Philadelphia re: projection requirements.

February 12 Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, lecture. [Hendricks 149]

February 13 Philadelphia Enquirer, 'THE ZOOPRAXISCOPE. How Science Has Used a Toy to Make New Discoveries About Animals'. Report of Academy of Fine Arts lecture.

February 13 Franklin Institute lecture. [Hendricks 149]

February 15 Academy of Music lecture. [Hendricks 149]

February 16 second lecture, Academy of Fine Arts. [Hendricks 149]

February 20 Southland Times, New Zealand, 4561, 20 Feb 1883, p.3.

February Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

March by this month had produced prospectus for 'a new and elaborate work upon the attitudes of man, the horse and other animals in motion.' [Braun 231]

March Philadelphia Photographer, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

April 5 first Anschuetz photographs with new camera displayed at a meeting of the Verein zur Foerderung der Photographie, Berlin (Berlin Photographic Society): trotting, galloping and jumping horses. (single images). '...these invite comparison with the earlier studies of the movements of horses made by Muybridge.....' 'Further comparison .... established the circumstance that Muybridge's images were made with wet collodion plates, while Anschuetz worked with much faster gelatin plates.' [Photographische Correspondenz, 1883, Nr. 253, S.147.] 'Herr Anschuetz presented a collection of instantaneous photographs of running horses, in 7 x 9 inch format, which were remeniscent of Muybridge's images.' .... 'Dr. Zenker recognised that these pictures were far superior to those of Muybridge* and Marey, but wished that Anschuetz had not taken single images, but like Muybridge had taken a series of images of the same animal one after the other which could represent the principles of animal locomotion....' (Anschuetz replied to this that he had not yet had the opportunity to work in Muybridge's style because of the extraordinary expense....) [Photographische Mittheilungen (Berlin), 1884, 20. Jg., S. 14-16.] TECHNICAL: 18 x 24 cm images, enlarged 8 times, so originals very small negatives. Anschuetz now using dry plates from Schleussner in Frankfurt am Main. [Liesegang, 25] [all refs this entry from: Deac Rossell, email to SH]. *(Muybridge's photographs seen by these commentators had been taken in 1878-79, when he was using wet plates. Dry plates were not produced in the USA at that time. Subsequently he used dry plates, but the results would not be widely seen until publication in 1887.)

April 5 The Helena Independent (Montana), 'Muybridge threw himself on his horse, rode thirty miles to the residence of the betrayer of his wife, called him out, and rising his rifle, shouted: "Here's ... ' [Google News Archive search]

April 23 Leeds Mercury. Proposal concerning Attitudes album .... Muybridge seeking 200 subscribers. Interesting indication that he was trying to set up a scheme similar to that eventually adopted with the later Animal Locomotion.

April 28 Hermann Wilhelm Vogel [president of the Berlin photographic society] writes to The Philadelphia Photographer, re: Anschuetz photographs taken in emulation of Muybridge. (Printed in June issue). [Rossell email to SH]

April Journal of the Franklin Institute, includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

May Manufacturer and Builder, details of Palo Alto photography and camera shutters (diagram) in 'Photographing Animals in Rapid Motion.' [The Making of America collection at:
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/]

May 16 The Penn Yan Express (New York), includes Muybridge content. [Google News Archive search]

Spring Muybridge lectures in New York: Photographic Section of the American Institute, Cooper Union and elsewhere. [Hendricks 152]

June 19 Method of and Apparatus for Photographing Changing or Moving Objects 279,878 US patent granted.


The Century, Bric-A- Brac cartoon.

June issue of The Century reviewed in The Ogdensburg-Advance (1883 - day not known) 'Open Letter' Department, 'On the Galloping Horse in Art' '...conventional attitudes are as true and as scientific, in practical optics, as are Mr Muybridge's photographs in theory. The absurdity of applying that theory rigidly in art will be shown in a humorous silhouette (after Muybridge) of a country horse-race, in 'Bric-a-Brac' of the same number.' [http://news.nnyln.org/ogdensburg-advance/search.html] to see The Century: [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu]

June letter from Hermann Wilhelm Vogel inThe Philadelphia Photographer: 'Muybridge's celebrated pictures of the horse have excited photographers here to emulation. Unlike Muybridge, they employ gelatine plates instead of wet collodion. Herr Anschutz has obtained, in this manner, some charming results. They are seven by nine inches in size. Our Society has square-shaped pictures, and their sharpness is remarkable, considering that they are thirty times enlarged, and that the horses have been taken while on a leap, or during some other rapid movement. They are regarded as the best productions of instantaneous pictures that have yet been taken. I presume that Mr. Muybridge intends to make use of the improved gelatine plates in his new investigations, and judging by the ripe experience he already possesses, the results promise to be extraordinary. [Philadelphia Photographer, June 1883, p. 78] [Hecht 312J, and Hendricks 153] (Muybridge did indeed make use of gelatine dry plates for his post-1879 sequence photography).

August files suit against Osgood and Company, publishers of Stillman's The Horse in Motion.[?]

August 7 University Pennsylvania grants Muybridge use of grounds for sequence photography work.

August 8 invitation to undertake photographic studies, from University of Pennsylvania, sent to Muybridge. [Braun 232]

September 3 letter of thanks (for $5,000 advance) to Dr Pepper. 'In a few days I am going to New Bedford to make some experiments at Mr. Bradford's studio.' (William Bradford, marine painter. Nature of the experiments?). [Hendricks 154]

September 26 lecture to the art class pupils 'and many prominent citizens' at the New Bedford High School, Massachusetts. (Check date, as report seems to be in Fairhaven Star, Sat 22 Sept). [Scrap]

November 9 lecture in Boylston Hall, Harvard College.

November 10 Boston Daily Advertiser p.2 issue 114, 'Mr. MUYBRIDGE AT HARVARD. ... Mr. Eadweard Muybridge repeated his very interesting lecture in Boylston Hall, Harvard College, last evening, on animal locomotion.'

Also in 1883:

** George Augustus Sala, writes about Muybridge's 1882 Royal Institution lecture of March 1882 (says it was on Monday 6th - but in fact that was the rehearsal?), in: Living London: being 'Echoes' re-echoed. (A selected republication of the 'Echoes of the Week' and 'The Playhouses' which appeared in 1882 in the Illustrated London News.) Remington & Co.: London, 1883.

Also in 1883:

** Magazine of Art (Cassell and Company, London & New York), (multi-volume book) includes article 'The Paces of the Horse in Art', re: 'Stillman's photographs', Marey etc. Includes line drawings based on Muybridge's photographs. [Barnes Collection]

**The Art Journal includes article 'Movement in the Plastic Arts'. In three parts, illustrated with historical pictures, and line drawings and silhouettes from Muybridge's photographs. [Barnes Collection]

** The Photographic Times and American Photographer, Volume 13, p.133, announcement by Muybridge at a meeting. Also, p. xxiv (?) is a display advertisement for a set of 12 Muybridge zoetrope strips.

1884

February 8 lectures at Association Hall, Philadelphia. [Herbert 122]

February 9 Philadelphia Evening Bulletin report of Feb 8 lecture. Muybridge responds to unruly students. [Hendricks 157]

February 9 Association Hall lecture of 8th February reported; 'Animal Motion', The Record (Phil) and The Press [Scrap]

February 15 British Journal of Photography p.110, letter from J. Traill Taylor telling how he discovered 'about a year ago' that Muybridge's condenser lenses were of poor quality. [Internet Archive]

February 26 LOCAL AND GENERAL Leeds Mercury, Issue 14316. Lecturer uses slides of Muybridge's photos of animals in motion.

March 1 NATURE AND SCIENCE, Leeds Mercury, Issue 14320. Lecturer uses slides of MuybridgeÕs photos of animals in motion].

March Pepper appoints the 'Muybridge Commission'.

April 'Muybridge Commission' meets for the first and only recorded time.

May 11 New York Times 'SCIENTIFIC GOSSIP' 'The instantaneous photographs taken of various animals in motion have received marked attention from the Berlin Physical Society .It was seen on examinimg the several photographs separately that the conventional and customary representation of moving animals produced by artists were not always correct...on being looked at through the stroboscope, give instant proof...these achievements by Mr. Muybridge, of San Francisco, in photography have won for him a deservedly high European reputation.' [New York Times archive]

May starts one of three workbooks noting details of University of Pennsylvania photography. [Hendricks 160]

June 18 Thomas Anschutz, pupil of Thomas Eakins (details of Eakins to follow): letter to J. Laurie Wallace, re: Muybridge experiments with multiple images on single plate (revolving shutters). [Hendricks 159]

June begins Philadelphia sequence photography work at the University of Pennsylvania (until c.January 1886); almost 20,000 sequence photographs eventually published as Animal Locomotion plates. [Braun 232]

July 11 British Journal of Photography p.448, Notes and Queries, enquiry about purchasing photographs of Mexico and Central America. 'We are aware of Mr. Muybridge having several years ago published a catalogue of such views, but we are unaware of his having an agent in this country...'

August lecture, Scientific Society, University of Pennsylvania. 'same ... he gave us last year.' [Braun 411 n.15] (what was date of 1883 lecture?)
[http://www.franklin.library.upenn.edu]

August and September Muybridge and assistants photograph animals and birds at Philadelphia Zoo. [Hendricks 166]

September 6 Philadelphia Ledger and Transcript reports: 'Through Mr. Fairman Rogers ... Mr. Muybridge was brought into relations with the University of Pennsylvania, which had just established its Department of Veterinary Surgery, and a number of gentlemen interested in that and other departments united in securing a repetition of the experiments at the University on far larger scale and with greatly improved appliances. The authorities of the Academy of the Fine Arts and of the Zoological Garden gave their hearty co-operation to the plan.' [Sarah Gordon]

September 19 British Journal of Photography p.605, 'I have been fortunate in getting an early glimpse of the results of Mr. Muybridge's experiments here...' Account of Pennsylvania photography, some ill-observed descriptions of sequences taken, concludes 'I am unaware what result is being aimed at in these pictures. I am told, that the University has voted large sums of money for these experiments, but I cannot learn for what end.' G. H. Croughton.

December 4 Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer Reports: Leeds Naturalists' Club. President, Mr. Washinghton Teasdale, shows lantern slides including series of Muybridge's photographs of the horse and other animals in motion.

December 6 San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin (p.2) 'FOR SALE, Forty photographs of Yosemite Valley and the Sierras ... copyrighted by Muybridge...' (display Advert.)

Also in 1884:

** Stuff and Nonsense, by A.B. Frost and C. Frost (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons), includes Muybridge related cartoon of horses / artist.

** Publication of the first edition of De L'exterieur du Cheval, by Armand Charles Goubaux and Gustave Barrier, Asselin & Cie., 1884. Includes drawings by Jules Lenoble du Teil, based on Muybridge's Palo Alto horse sequences.

1885

January 13 Possible date of lecture, Animal Locomotion, at John Hopkins University. [The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, 1885. Google book search - limited view]

February 13 '[the court] rendered judgement in Stanford's favor; thus Muybridge lost his case.'
[http://elane.stanford.edu/wilson/html/chap9/chap9-sect2.html]

February 27 New York Times HORSES IN MOTION. A MILWAUKEE MAN'S ATTEMPTS AT INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY. '...series of experiments now being made by Mr. W. A. Armstrong, the Broadway photographer. Ever since the days of experiments... by Mr. Muybridge... the public have been led to believe that the photographing of animals in rapid motion was an every day occurence.... Mr Armstrong has come nearer to making a perfect picture of a horse in motion than any other photographer in the world.' (From the Milwaukee Wisconsin 23 Feb) [NYT archive online]

March 24 Inquirer reports on Zoo photography [Hend 166]

April 30 lectures again to Scientific Society, in the chapel of the University of Pennsylvania.

May 1 lecture of April 30 ('last of the lectures under the auspices of the Scientific Society') reported; 'The Lecture Platform', The Press. [Scrap]

June 2 First of three notebooks (sequence photography) started.

July first reports of Anschuetz series photographs with new camera battery; 12 pictures of a running man; 12 pictures of a galloping horse with rider. Again compared with Muybridge in the first reports: 'Herr Anschuetz goes further down the pathway first trodden by the American Muybridge, and has - as the first attempts show - gone a good bit further than his predecessor. The images are completely realised and of impeccable sharpness.' [Photographische Correspondenz, 1885, 22. Jg., p. 255.] (New Anschuetz photographs are being compared with old Muybridge 1870s series. Muybridge's 1884-5 photographs not published until 1887)

Summer re-starts sequence photography.

August 2 The Times, Philadelphia, 'Animal Motion - Mr Muybridge's observations at the University of Pennsylvania.' With drawings based on photos.

August photographs animals and birds at Zoological gardens. [Hend 166]

August 12 Philadelphia Ledger, Muybridge to photograph at Zoological Garden. (reprinted in New York Times Aug 16).

August 16 New York Times 'Mr. Muybridge's photographs; interesting pictures to be taken of wild birds and beasts in motion.' Page 5, 924 words. 'To-day Eadweard Muybridge, of this city, proposes to begin the use of his system of instantaneous photography in the Zoological Garden, and he expects to spend 10 days or more there in photographing the motions of the representative birds and beasts. Yesterday Mr. Muybridge and about half a dozen assistants...' [New York Times archive online
http://select.nytimes.com]

August 17 Philadelphia Ledger, 'Wing Feathers' article (reprinted New York Times Aug 20).

August 20 New York Times 'Wing feathers; how they move while the wing is stationary.' Page 2, 735 words. 'Mr. Muybridge, who is photographing the motions of birds and beasts in the Zoological Garden by his "instantaneous" system, says that in his experiments during the latter part of last week he demonstrated to his entire satisfaction that pigeons, eagles, and other birds in soaring give individual movements to the wing feathers, ...' [New York Times archive online
http://select.nytimes.com]

August 22 The Press, 'Taking Leo's Picture.' Lion and herd of buffaloes photographed. [Scrap?]

August 23 The Press photographing a snake [Clegg 204]

late August. Syndicated newspaper report appears in several newspapers. 'PHOTOGRAPHING A LION. The King of Beasts Makes a Very Poor Subject. Philadelphia Press.' 'Photographer Muybridge was very anxious to obtain an instantaneous photograph of a lion in motion, but there were many difficulties in the way.' More...

August 31 New York Times, 'SULLIVAN AND McCAFFREY' 'Philadelphia , Aug. 30. Dominic McCaffrey will arrive in Philadelphia to-morrow afternoon...Mr. Muybridge...is arranging to focus McCaffrey as he faces an imaginary Sullivan. The batteries of cameras will be arranged to make front and rear views and from both sides, and every attitude of the pugilist's body will be accurately reproduced. The pictures will be purely scientific.....' [NYT archive online]

September 30 Gouverneur Free Press (St Lawrence County) 'For Science Only' - 'Muybridge, the photographer who has been taking pictures of the animals at the Philadelphia Zoological gardens, is to photograph McCaffrey, the pugillistic artist, in the act of undoing an opponent...' (from the Buffalo Courier). [http://news.nnyln.org/gouverneur-newspapers/search.html]

October 9 Manitoba Daily Free Press (Winnipeg), "Mr. Muybridge showed the reporter the plates of twelve different ... Mr. Muybridge pointed out that in the first negative, wherein the wings were ..." [Google newspaper archive search]

October 28 takes the last sequence photographs.

Autumn photographs locomotion of horses at Gentelmen's Driving Park at Belmont, near Philadelphia. [Braun 237]

1886

January 2 report on 'Photographischen Momentaufnahmen' in Leipzig Illustrirte Zeitung, Nr. 2218, p. 21. New series photographs by Anschuetz compared with those of Muybridge and Marey. [Rossell, email to SH]

16 March Pennsylvanian reports on preparing the photographs in the Biological Hall at the University of Pennsylvania. [Braun "Eadweard Muybridge" 2010, 216]

May 15 (?) photographs tableaux based on scene from student production of The Acharnians. [Hendricks174]

May 15 Fort Wayne Sentinel "EDWARD MUYBRIDGE is an expert photographer who has achieved wonders in The way of photographing animals in motion, his object being to show how they .." [Goodle News Archive search]

July 14 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION, Glasgow Herald, Issue 167. Arts & Entertainment. 'Also shown silhouettes...'

September 28 article, 'Muybridge and the Athletes' in the Daily Pennsylvanian (University paper) quotes Muybridge talking about his recent sequence photography, and the plates for Animal Locomotion. Also, 'The zoopraxiscope ... has been patented, but will not be offered to the public for some time.' (Not in fact patented.)
[http://hdl.library.upenn.edu/1017.6/20050208003]

November 20 Harper's Weekly publishes drawings based on three Mubridge photographs of student production of The Acharnians (photographed May 1886). [Hendricks 175]

Also in 1886:

** Historical Souvenir of San Francisco, Cal., With Views of Prominent Buildings, the Bay Islands, etc. published by C. P. Heininger. Portion of Muybridge's 1877 panorama reproduced as reduced photolithograph, uncredited. (Also 1887 and 1888 editions). [Harris 125]

**What Katy Did Next by Susan Coolidge (1887) includes a mention of Muybridge: 'Suddenly into the midst of these reflections there glanced a picture so vivid that it almost took away her breath, as the train steamed past a pack of hounds in full cry, followed by a galloping throng of scarlet-coated huntsmen. One horse and rider were in the air, going over a wall. Another was just rising to the leap. A string of others, headed by a lady, were tearing across a meadow bounded by a little brook, and beyond that streamed the hounds following the invisible fox. It was like one of Muybridge's instantaneous photographs of "The Horse in Motion," for the moment that it lasted; and Katy put it away in her memory, distinct and brilliant, as she might a real picture.'

** Boston Herald publishes article on Stanford and his horses, in which Muybridge (though not named) is ridiculed. [Clegg 186]

1887

January 27 The Nation, 'Muybridge, The original photo-grapher of 'The Horse in Motion,' has for three years, under the auspices. of The University of Pennsylvania...' [Google News Archive search]

February 7 Fort Worth Daily Gazette p.8: 'Carefully made experiments at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted by Professor Barker, have shown that some of Mr. Muybridge's photographic exposures were made in periods of time varying from the one two-thousandth to one five-thousandth of a second.'

March 26 Anthony's Photographic Bulletin article: exposures 1/500th of a second. [Hend Edison Myth 121]

March 26 New York Evening Post, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

April 25 Animal Locomotion photographs copyright registration form signed by John James Atkinson (decribed as Muybridge's attorney) on this date. (The forms were registered at Stationers Hall on 20 May 1887.) [www.nationalarchives.gov.uk]

May 3 ART NOTES, Liverpool Mercury, Issue 12265. Arts & Entertainment. 'Mr. Edward Muybridge ... will shortly visit Liverpool.'

May 20 Copyright Registration of Animal Locomotion plates in England. 'Registration forms, and accompanying photographic sheets for human and animal motion studies 1 to 100 produced by Eadward Muybridge....For each of the photographs described in this sequence the copyright owner and author is noted as Eadweard Muybridge, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, present place of abode University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States of America. The registration forms were signed on behalf of Muybridge by his attorney, John James Atkinson, 25 April 1887. The forms were registered at Stationers Hall on 20 May 1887.' [www.nationalarchives.gov.uk]

June 10 Photographic News article re: artists would be wrong to 'paint a horse as Muybridge has photographed it...' [Hendricks 202]

July 'Animal Locomotion in the Muybridge Photographs', illustrated (with sequence photographs) review of Animal Locomotion by Talcott Williams, journalist and friend of Walt Whitman and Eakins, printed in the Century.

July 9 Chicago Daily Tribune, 'CARICATURES IN JAPAN. POKING PICTURED FUN AT THE PROGRESSIONISTS.' 'A few years ago Muybridge was exhibiting some magic lantern slides at the Art Association rooms of birds in motion. They were taken from instantaneous photographs, and Muybridge claimed that it was the first time that the true position of birds in flight had ever been presented.
'Not so,' said Tavernier, who was present. 'The Japanese have shown us just such positions for many hundreds of years.'
A comparison of the instantaneous photographs with a number of Japanese illustrations - ancient and modern - showed this to be true. Both had the same apparently unnatural drop of the wings, the extraordinary position of the bodies - the electric camera showed no more than the brush of the Japanese artist...' (etc). [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/]

August 19 British Journal of Photography p.525 Birkenhead Photographic Association. (Re: mtg of 11th inst., held in Free Public Library.) 'The Secretary exhibited a number of Muybridge's latest specimens of instantaneous photography, kindly lent for the occasion by Mr. J. J. Atkinson, of Manchester-street, Liverpool, which excited great interest.....observed through the zoetrope, the figures and animals having then all the reality of life....Mr. Muybridge being sortly expected in England.'

November 11 writes to Professor Edward Greenleaf, with prospectus, announcing publication of Animal Locomotion. (Circular letter). Same letter, addresed to J.Y. Burke, in Univ Penn archives.

November 24 letter 'To the Editor of the Press Philadelphia' accompanying copy of the Author's edition (21 plates) of Animal Locomotion.
[HERE]

December 27 lecture at Thomas S. Clarke's art studio in Oakland, Pittsburg.

December 28 Pittsburg Commercial Gazzette reports Clarke lecture, 'Attitudes of Animals in Motion'. No mention of Zoopraxiscope [Scrap]

Also in 1887:
** Animal Locomotion: an electro-photographic investigation of consecutive phases of animal movement (Philadelphia: The UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA), 781 collotype plates, published.

Animal Locomotion: an electro-photographic investigation of consecutive phases of animal movement, prospectus and catalogue of plates, (Philadelphia: The UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA), published.

1888

January 19 'Animal Locomotion' - New York paper The Nation discusses the possibility of 'joining Muybridge's photographs to Edison's phonograph'. [Hecht 324M]

January 30 New York Times 'BOOKS RECEIVED.' 'ANIMAL LOCOMOTION. By EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE.1872-1885. Plates from instantaneous photographs. Philadelphia: The UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 1888. Folio, cloth.'

February 2 lecture in the art studio of William M. Chase, West Tenth Street, New York City.

February 3 New York Evening Post, 'Art Notes', reports Chase lecture. No mention of Zoopraxiscope. [Scrap]

February 7 letter from 42 East 14th St, to Rev J. Burk, asking him to arrange construction of transport boxes for Zoopraxiscope and lantern. [Herbert 123]

February 16 lecture at 'the Academy' ? [Jervis McEntee diary entry 17 Feb]

February 17, Friday. Landscape painter Jervis McEntee (1828-1891) diary entry: '...Attended an illustrated lecture of Muybridge at the Academy on animal locomotion. It was most interesting.' [Jervis McEntee papers, 1850-1905, in the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution]

February 25 lectures in Orange, New Jersey.

February 27 visits Thomas Edison, discusses combining Zoopraxiscope with phonograph. [Hend EMPM 11]

March 3 Orange Chronicle report of Orange lecture [Musser 53]

March 3 Orange Journal report of Orange lecture. Questions the 'propriety of exhibiting semi-nude human figures to a promiscuous assembly.' [Musser 53]

March 4 letter to Frank W. Hoyt from 42 East 14th Street, New York. 'Friday Evening Next ...I lecture at the Union League Club' and 'Monday 12th inst: repeat lecture at the Century Club.'

March 5 New York Times, 'WONDERS OF THE CAMERA.' review of Animal Locomotion. '...Care is taken that the nude series cannot be bought by those who do not intend to use such work for serious study. None but known and responsible persons are permitted to subscribe.' more here.

March 6 (Tuesday) Muybridge 'at studio...3pm' [in 4 March letter to Hoyt].

March 9 lecture Union League Club, New York. [Hoyt letter 4 Mar]

March 10 New York Times 'Animals in motion.' Page 3, 73 words. 'Eadweard Muybridge, the inventor of photography of animals in motion, lectured before the members of the Union League Club last evening on the methods and results of his art. By means of the zoopraxiscope he reproduced upon a screen the actual movements of men and women, as well as of horses and other quadrupeds and of birds. The lecture was very interesting, and was listened to by a delighted audience.' [New York Times archive online]

March 12 lecture at Century Club, New York. [Hoyt letter Mar 4]

March 13 The Argus. Interview with Muybridge. [Braun EM 2010, p.221] [scrap]

April 24 Boston Daily Advertiser item, p.8 issue 98: 'PROFESSOR MUYBRIDGE'S ADDRESS ...has kindly consented to address the Club on Thursday evening next...'

April 26 Muybridge lecture at Press Club, Boston.

April 27 Boston Daily Globe reports on 26 April presentation, 'FACTS OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION. Professor Muybridge and Dr. Oliver W. Holmes at the Press Club.'

May 4 Orange, New Jersey second lecture. [Hendricks 175]

May 12 sends Edison a catalogue of the Animal Locomotion plates on which Edison noted: 'Tell him to make the selection for me. E.' [Hend EMPM 27]

June 3 New York World includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

June 14 Brooklyn Daily Eagle reports: 'AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS...An Interesting Meeting at the Residence of George S. Wheeler.' 'Mr. W. G. Levison read a paper upon a new automatic continuous camera for taking a series of pictures from one point of view. ....[sequence camera using dry plates, could be used for paper roll film]. ..This camera is peculiarly adapted for taking series of pictures of objects moving vertically, such as acrobats tossing balls in the air, by means of which pictures the same emotions can be reproduced in the zoetrope or the zoopraxiscope. The apparatus employed by Mr. Muybridge has not adapted for these subjects, but it seems that he has lately turned his attention in this direction, for he has suggested to Mr. Edison that a camera of this kind can be used to photograph the gestures of a speaker, while at the same time a phonograph would record his speech and afterward, by a combination of the phonograph and zoopraxiscope, the speech can be repeated and at the same time the actions of the speaker can be reproduced upon the screen...' [http://www.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/eagle/]


Invitation card, Eadweard Muybridge Collection, University of Pennsylvania Archives. http://americanhistory.si.edu/muybridge/htm/htm_sec2/sec2p2.htm

June 20 Milwaukee Sentinel 'Mr. Muybridge's Lecture. ... at the college auditorium to-morrow evening at 8 o'clock.'

June 21 lecture, Hall of the Milwaukee College, 8pm.

June 22 Milwaukee Sentinel (p.9) 'ANIMAL LOCOMOTION.... his beautiful slides and Prof. Farrar's lantern...' Account of lecture.

June 22 writes to Burk, with details of sales etc. [Braun Eadweard Muybridge 2010, 219-220] [listing in: Hinton]

Summer/Autumn Art Institute of Chicago; Boston; Philadelphia lectures (probably with Zoopraxiscope). [Hendricks 176]

August 2 Manitoba Daily Free Press (Winnipeg) "...animal LOCOMOTION. all possible Human and Animal Modes of motion Caught by The Camera. Visit to Winnipeg of Mr. Muybridge, Inventor of The System. ... " [Google News Archive search]

August 8 Bismarck Daily Tribune (Bismarck, ND) 'PERSONAL ... Eadweard Muybridge, the Philadelphia scientist who has made fame through his discoveries in animal locomotion, arrived in the city yesterday en route west.'

August 25 Rocky Mountain News Saturday, p.5 'AN EMINENT ARTIST. Mr. Muybridge and His Wonderful Work. - Mr. Eadweard Muybridge ... is in the city, a guest at the Windsor hotel ... through the generosity of Messrs. Charles B. Kountre and W. B. Daniels the chamber of commerce library of Denver now possesses a copy [of Animal Locomotion]. Mr. Muybridge expects to leave the city to-day.'

November 15 Photo Gravure Company receipt to Edison ($100) for Animal Locomotion plates. [Hend EMPM 27]

November 28 letter to Edison: Muybridge had sent the Animal Locomotion plates to Orange 'about two weeks ago'. [Hend EMPM 28]

** publication of Animal locomotion : the Muybridge work at the University of Pennsylvania: the method and the result. Philadelphia. Printed for the University by J.B. Lippincott Co., contains three papers by experts: Marks, W. D. 'The mechanism of instantaneous photography.' Allen, H. 'Materials for a memoir on animal locomotion'. Dercum, F. X. 'A study of some normal and abnormal movements photographed by Muybridge.' [Hecht 330D] [BL entry]

** praises Francis Blake's 1888 series of images of a horse and rider galloping, and anticipated that Blake would soon surpass his own efforts as a photographer. 'I am greatly pleased with your appreciation of my work,' Muybridge wrote to Blake in 1888, 'but shall be equally resigned to take a back seat when you get your new exposer in operation.' 'The Photography of Francis Blake (1850-1913)' by Megan K. Friedel, MHS Photograph Catalog.
The Francis Blake Photographs at the Massachusetts Historical Society [http://www.masshist.org/photographs/blake.cfm?queryID=17]

** Watertown Herald 'Freaks of the Amateurs' '...the system invented by Muybridge for recording the successive positions assumed by animals in motion has been greatly improved upon by local operators. Boston Cor. Globe-Democrat.' (exact date not known). [watertown-herald-1888-july-september - 0063.pdf
http://news.nnyln.org/watertown-herald/search.html]

Key to references [in square brackets]

NEXT

HOME