THE COMPLEAT EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE: CHRONOLOGY 1881-1882


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Go to: 1882

1881

February 6 San Francisco Examiner has Muybridge announcing the horse shown by Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope as Phryne Lewis, and Stanford insisting (correctly) that it was Florence Anderson. (Anonymous, by Muybridge). Article entitled 'San Francisco Art: 'zoogyroscope is complete in every detail. ... series of discs already pepared are thirty.' [Mozley 119-123 check]

February 16 San Francisco Examiner notes that horse skeleton had been 'imported from New York'.

February 19 New York Times 'Instant photography; results of the California experiments.' Page 2, 2302 words. 'The results of Mr. Muybridge's years of efforts to photograph animals of all kinds, man included, while in continuous and rapid motion, may now be said to be fully and most satisfactorily complete, as is also his zoogyroscope--his marvelous invention for putting his pictures again in motion...' (from the San Francisco Examiner). Includes reference to Muybridge shooting a 'timeslice' sequence (5 cameras in semi-circle, all fired same time) of a galloping horse (for artist's reference) - which is several years before his University of Pennsylvania timeslice sequences. [New York Times archive online]

March 26 'The Wonderful Work of Photography - An Ingenious Instrument to Prove the Correctness of Photographs of Animals in Motion', article in San Francisco Bulletin (about Zoopraxiscope) includes description of Zoopraxiscope projection of skeleton horse disc.. [Scrap?]

April Zoopraxiscope demonstration 'brought him worldwide publicity' (?) (Could be error for April 82?) [Mac 28]

April Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]


Page from Attitudes of Animals in Motion. (c) Kingston Library (Photo Stephen Herbert).

May (circa), 'publishes' results on Palo Alto 1878-79 work in an album, The Attitudes of Animals in Motion.

May Attitudes of Animals in Motion copyrighted. [Solnit 268]

May 3 first account of name zoopraxeoscope (for Zoopraxiscope) instead of Zoogyroscope - in San Francisco Evening Post. [Hamilton 29]

May 5 The Bucks County Gazette (Bristol, Pennsylvania), '.. Mr. Muybridge devise an instrument for exhibiting these photographs. ... interesting experiments have been made with the skeleton of a horse, ...' [Google News Archive search]

May 15 circa, presents Attitudes ... album to Stanford. [Mozley 92]. Stanford's copy is inscriped by Muybridge and signed 'Muybridge, Menlo Park, 15th May, 1881.' [Mozley, p. 75.]

May 16 New York Times piece 'Photographs of Moving Animals'. Note: Description of sequences that 'can now be illustrated' includes perhaps the first motion picture informed by the camera to comprise a sequence of different 'shots'; and for dramatic effect: 'a deerhunt, where a deer, followed successfully [successively?] by dogs and horsemen, traverses over the illuminated screen.' (Originally published in the Philadelphia Post.) [New York Times archive online]

May 30 Muybridge signs receipt for Two Thousand Dollars received from Avril Lathrop, on a/c of Leland Stanford. [Huntington Papers 1856-1901 microfilm]

June 15 J. TRAILL TAYLOR writes to British Journal of Photography ..... "Having just risen from a long seance with Mr. Muybridge (who is present in New York, en route for Europe....... " [long description of Palo Alto setup.] J. TRAILL TAYLOR, 419 Broome-street, New York, June 15. 1881 . [Letter is published 1 July 1881.]

June 26 Daily Record-Union reports Stanford's 1881 [?] visit to Meissonier. Stanford shows the artist Attitudes of Animals in Motion. [Mozley 92]

June 27 letter to Avril Lathrop Esq., c/o Scovill Manf Compy, New York. "...I reached New York in due course of time....The negatives and apparatus arrived this morning, all I believe in good order. I shall sail for Europe as soon as possible, but have not yet determined whether it will be advisable to take the apparatus with me...." [Huntington Papers 1856-1901 microfilm]

July 27 files US patent for slide-changer, or 'picture feeding device for magic lanterns': 251127.

August 31 application filed for US patent no. 279,878 'Method of and Apparatus for Photographing Changing or Moving Objects'. [Mannoni2 414]

July 1 British Journal of Photography 1 July 1881, p.336-337 NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. "Having just risen from a long seance with Mr. Muybridge (who is present in New York, en route for Europe....... [long description of Palo Alto setup. Letter is dated New York, June 15.] [checked at BL] .


Leland Stanford, Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, 1881, Stanford Museum. Oil on canvas. [The album The Attitudes of Animals in Motion is beneath Stanford's left arm.] This painting is exhibited at the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University, California, USA

July 27 files US patent for slide-changer, or 'picture feeding device for magic lanterns': 251127.

August travels from New York to Europe for lectures.

August 19 Attitudes of Animals in Motion album advertised in BJP. [Mozley 133 n.42]

August / September possible brief visit to London before going on to Paris: 'Muybridge's widest exposure came in the fall of 1881 when, after a brief visit to his native England, he traveled to France.' ['Prestige, Professionalism, and the Paradox of Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion Nudes', in: Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol.130 No.1 Jan 2006 (online)]. ALSO: British Journal of Photography, 17 March 1882. p.151 'MUYBRIDGE'S PHOTOGRAPHS OF ANIMALS IN MOTION' ... '...after a short visit to London during last summer he proceeded to Paris....'

August 31 US patent no. 279,878 'Method of and Apparatus for Photographing Changing or Moving Objects'. [Mannoni2 414]

September 7 application for re-issue of patent 212,865 (re-issued 6 Dec 81 as RE9,960). [Google patent search] Why was re-issue necessary?

September 26 exhibits Zoopraxiscope at home of Etienne-Jules Marey, physiologist, in Paris. Photographer Nadar, physicists Helmholtz and Bjerknes, and Emile Duhousset, present.

September 27 Le Globe reports on Zoopraxiscope [zootropique] presentation. [Pompidou 78] [Mozley 130, and 35 n.26]

September 'in Marey's laboratory [Muybridge] worked for the first time with the new very sensitive dry plates.' [Coe, M & C 19]

Autumn Meissonier paints Leland Stanford (painting in Stanford University Museum of Art). Portrait includes the album Attitudes.

October 9 Marey writes to Szekely re: Muybridge's human and animal motion series, his bird photography, etc. [Mannoni, E.J. Marey. Actes du colloque du centenaire (Arcadia 2006) 85]

October 29 Meissonier sends out invitations for Muybridge show, to take place 3 Nov. [Mannoni (Crangle) 315]

October 29 Scientific and Industrial Notes, Manchester Times (England), Muybridge showing new scientific wonders (in Paris).

November 1 Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), Issue 3893. 'Monsieur Muybridge' - report from Paris.

November 3 first Meissonier show, 131 bld Malsherbes. [Pompidou 78] [Mannoni (Crangle) 315]

November 2 LITERARY AND ART GOSSIP, Leeds Mercury, Issue 13593. Arts & Entertainment. Muybridge has been exhibiting in Paris.

November 5 NATURE AND SCIENCE, Leeds Mercury (Leeds, England), Issue 13596. Muybridge exhibiting remarkable photographs (in Paris).

November 17 Bucks County Gazette (USA). Prepared Specially for the Bucks County Gazette SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY. ...'Mr. Muybridge, the eminent San Francisco photographer, has exhibited his photographic marvels to Prof. Marey in Paris. He is now able to take photograph in the hundre[d]th part of a second. During a clown's leap he obtained six photographs, showing different positions. By means of an improved zoetrope, he projects such figures on a screen, thus exhibiting the motions of a clown in his somersaults, a horse at gallop...' (etc). [www.newspaperarchive.com]

November 26 (2nd Meissonier) presentation of Zoopraxiscope, operated by Alfred Molteni (projection expert) at Paris home of Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, French painter. 200 guests including famous artists. [Herbert 118]

November 27 Figaro reports on Meissonier reception. [Mozley 35 n.26]

** now known as Eadweard James Muybridge.

November 28 letter to Frank Shay (Stanford's secretary) re: Stanford in Paris, etc. [Mozley 29 and 123]

November 28 Standard, London report of Meissonier show. [Mozley 131]

November 29 Le Temps reports Meissonier show, 'a brilliant success.' [Mannoni (Crangle) 315]

November 30 Leeds Mercury (Leeds, England), Issue 13617. Photographs by electricity.

December lecture, Cercle de l'Union Artistique, Paris. [Herbert 118]

December Gentleman's Magazine Vol.252, article by Richard A. Proctor (about Zoopraxiscope). [Mozley 130]

December 3 American Register 'Mr. Muybridge's Photographs of Animals in Motion' - report on Meissonier show. [Mozley 85]

December 6 US Patent of 4 Mar 1879 [212,865] re-issued as 9,960. [Google patent search]

December 20 US patent 'Picture Feeding Device for Magic Lanterns' (fast slide changer) 251127 granted.

December 23 letter to Frank Shay, re: Meissonier to publish book on the horse in art. [Mozley 35 n.37]

** Account of the Larkyns shooting, in: Lyman L. Palmer, History of Napa and Lake Counties, California (San Francisco: Slocum, Bowen & Co., 1881), pages 152-153.
[http://www.napacountygenealogy.com/homicides/larkyns.htm]

**1881-2: Muybridge lectures in London and Paris; reports given in Photographische Mittheilungen & Photographische Wochenblatt -- Ottomar Anschuetz a member of both organizations, saw both journals. [Deac Rossell, email to SH]

*** prints of Muybridge photos sold through Buchhandlung Mittler & Sohn, Berlin [unpublished Liesegang biography of Anschuetz (1940), manuscript at Agfa Foto-historama, Museum Ludwig, Cologne]

1882

January 6 Knowledge 'The Magic Wheel', phenakistiscope of trotting horse, to cut out and use.
'THE MAGIC WHEEL.' 'We are able this week to give a series of views of a trotting-horse to which we referred last week; and to explain how the picture is to be arranged to produce a life-like effect, we repeat Fig.1, as the two have to be considered together.

Cut out the seres of views (following the outer circle) with the scissors, and carefully copy it on a separate piece of paper; and paste the circular disc thus obtained on a circular piece of cardboard. Cut out the oblong space under each figure, so as to make a series of oblong slots through the cardboard. Then fasten the wheel to a stick or handle, by means of a pin through the centre, on which it can freely turn. If now you stand opposite a mirror in the way shown in Fig.1, and twirl round the disc before the eyes, looking through the upper slots, the horses will be seen to move as in life. The views have not been made to guess-work, as in most of the series used in zoetropes, but are from a series of actual photographs taken instantaneously at equal successive intervals of time during the trotting past of the celebrated racer, Abe Edgington. They were obtained by Muybridge, of San Francisco. Next week, or the week after, we shall give a series showing a galloping horse.

The above views are from the Scientific American; but, as mentioned in our last, the series showing a trotting horse had to be modified before it could be used for the purpose of the magic wheel. It is hardly necessary to say that the wheel can be readily made to turn uniformly by being put on a small axle, round which a string may be twined. But twirling with the hand will suffice to show how well worth while it is to provide a far more satisfactory method.' [Herbert Collection]

January 20 Knowledge 'The Magic Wheel', phenakistiscope of galloping horse and rider, to cut out and use.
'THE MAGIC WHEEL.' 'We give, this week, the series of pictures of a galloping horse. We have to notice, however, that the instructions in the Scientific American are erroneous. If a slit is cut exactly beneath each figure of a horse, we get a view of a horse galloping without advancing. Eleven slits should be cut (which the reader will find no difficulty in doing), at equal distances, when the horse will not only be found to move his legs, tail &c., but to advance, as might reasonably be expected fom a galloping horse. The same remarks apply, of course, to the trotting horse, in number 10, in fact, the trotting horse alone is taken from the Scientific American, the ten views of a galloping horse being from a series kindly supplied to the editor by Mr. Muybridge, of San Francisco, who photographed them. Twelve slits will produce the desired illusion even better than eleven, a correspondent notes, and their places are more easily measured. [Herbert Collection]

January 28 Scientific American Supplement, includes account of Meissonier presentation. [Taft intro]

January Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes account of Meissonier presentation. [Taft intro]

February 11 Lecture, Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. [Information from Marta Braun.]

February leaves France for London. [Solnit 268]

February publication of American edition of Stillman's The Horse in Motion, copyright by Stanford? Contains five Muybridge photos (heliotype repoductions), and 91 photolithographs by San Francisco artist William Hahn, drawings based on Muybridge photos. [Haas 135]

March-June series of lectures in England.

March 1 lecture rehearsal, evening, 'preparatory to an exhibition ... on Monday night', in lecture room of Royal Institution. [letter to Stillman, 2 March 1882, Huntington papers 1856-1901 microfilm]

March 2 letter to Stillman asking who will publish Stillman's book. [Clegg 172, copy on Huntington Papers 1856-1901 microfilm]

March 6 rehearsal of Zoopraxiscope at Royal Institution. (Letter Muybridge to Shay, 7 March 1882). George Augustus Sala, writing in 1883 about Muybridge in Living London, says Royal Institution lecture was Monday 6 March 1882 - but Muybridge, writing on Tues 7 March 1882, says rehearsal was previous evening and lecture to be 'on Monday night' (i.e. 13th). [Hendricks 141] [Mozley 125]. Most likely there was a preliminary rehearsal/lecture for members (or audience of RI officials) on 6th, Royal lecture on 13th.

March 7 letter, Muybridge to Shay: 'I meet a number of RAs this evening at the house of Alma-Tadema to talk the matter over.' (i.e. possible Royal Academy (of Arts) lecture). [Mozley 125]. Same info in 7March letter from Muybridge to Stillman. [Huntington Papers microfilm]

March 13 Zoopraxiscope used at Royal Institution lecture to Royalty etc. [Haas 133] [Hendricks 141] Muybridge's text in: Notices of the Proceedings of the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, etc. [Hamilton bibliog]. Proceedings text states: EXTRA EVENING MEETING, Monday, March 13, 1882. H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G. F.R.S. Vice-Patron and Honorary Member, in the Chair. Eadweard Muybridge, of San Francisco. The Attitudes of Animals in Motion, illustrated with the Zoopraxiscope. [Proceedings of the Royal Institution online, at the Internet Archive]

March 14 possible lecture Royal Academy (of Arts)? [Mozley 35 n.27]

March 15 OCCASIONAL NOTES, The Pall Mall Gazette (London), Issue 5319. '...Mr Muybridge then exhibited... photographs...' (report of a lecture).

March 16 Zoopraxiscope used at Royal Academy of Arts lecture. [Hendricks 141] (Or 14th?).

March 17 (Friday) report in BJP re: show on 'Monday evening', at the Royal Institution, Albermarle Street. [Mozley 35 n.27]. BJP 17 March 1882. p.151, 'MUYBRIDGE'S PHOTOGRAPHS OF ANIMALS IN MOTION' ... '...a number of horses, in various stages of motion and travelling in different directions, were thrown on the screen at once.' [checked at BL]

March 17 Photographic News, 'Mr. Muybridge at the Royal Institution'. Detailed review, mentions the 'zoepracticoscope'. [Herbert collection] text here

March 18 Zoopraxiscope at Savage Club. [Hendricks 141]

March 18 Illustrated London News report by Geo. A. Sala, 'by the aid of an astonishing apparatus called a 'Zoopraxiscope', ......a Magic Lantern Run Mad...' etc. [Mozley 131]

March 18 THE COURT, The Graphic (London), Saturday, March 18, 1882; Issue 642. Royals' visit to Royal Institution lecture.

March 25 Chicago Daily Tribune 'LITERATURE.' 'A Collection of Photographs of the Horse in Motion. Some people may perhaps remember a neat little anecdote which went the rounds of the press some time ago, detailing an interview between the French painter Meissonnier and Gov. Stanford, of California. The two gentlemen had some dispute as to the accuracy of one of the former's paintings of a horse in motion....' [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/]

March 26 Philadelphia Times review of London lecture. [Scrap]

March 31 Photographic News includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

April 1 Punch has sequence cartoon of longhaired silhouette man running, 'New Zoopraxiscopic views of an eminent actor in Action (By Our Own Zoopraxiscopist.)'

April 1 Funny Folks, 'how do the horses go?' Short satire on name of Zoopraxiscope. [Scrap]

April 1 'Les photographies instantanées de M. Muybridge' by Gaston Tissandier, in La Nature, 461, 1 avril 1882, 276-7.

April 4 Zoopraxiscope at Society of Arts. [Hendricks 141] Text of lecture is later published. [Journal Royal Society of Arts (Great Britain) 1882 v. 30, p531, 843, 860 etc. Report of lecture on Animal Locomotion.]

April 5 Zoopraxiscope presentation at South Kensington Museum. [Hendricks 141]

April ** publication of Dr. J D B Stillman's book The Horse in Motion. Date for English edition, copyright by Stillman? London publisher: Trubner. [Haas 136]

April 11 letter by Dr Stillman, reprinted in G. T. Clark: Leland Stanford (1931) Muybridge eager to try photographing animals using dry plates. [Taft intro]

April 14 Reno Evening Gazette publishes article 'THE RUNNING HORSE. His True Position at Different Portions of his Forward Motion' (illustrated with line drawings). Review of The Horse in Motion. Names Muybridge as photographer, but does not mention Stillman (?)

April 14 'Mr Muybridge and rowing' by the editor, Knowledge p.502.

April 14 'Rapid motions photographed', Knowledge p.514.

April 20 Nature notes appearance of Stillman's The Horse in Motion. [Braun 229]

April 20 Royal Society receives Muybridge paper 'On the attitudes of animals in motion'. [Manuscripts, Royal Society]

April 22 La Nature includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

April 26 writes to Nature defending his position re: Stillman book. [Hend 145 - but not La Nature as Hendricks thinks]

April 27 Nature, Muybridge's letter re: Stillman's book is published? [Haas 136] [Mozley 35 n.29 and 126]

April 27 The Nation, Muybridge, the photographer, at one five-thousandth of a second, the photographs thus obtained...' [Google News Archive search]

April 27 Muybridge paper 'On the Attitudes of Animals in Motion' is read at Royal Society meeting, London. (Possibly title only read). 'Referees May 8 F. Galton. May 16 M. Foster.' [Manuscripts, Royal Society].

April 28 The Photographic News, p.240. 'TALK IN THE STUDIO. MUYBRIDGE'S PHOTOGRAPHS - Messrs. Trübner have just issued a work entited, "The Horse in Motion, as shown by Instantaneous Photography, with a Study in Animal Mechanics, founded on Anatomy and the Revelations of the Camera, in which is demonstrated the Theory of Quadrupedal Motion," by J.B.D. Stillman, A.M., M.D. The investigations were executed and published under the auspices of Mr. Leland Stanford, of Palo Alto Farm, California. He says, in the preface, "I have for a long time entertained the opinion that the accepted theory of the relative positions of the feet of horses in rapid motion was erroneous. I also believed that the camera could be utilized to demonstrate that fact, and, by instantaneous pictures, show the actual position of the limbs at each instant of the stride. Under this conviction I employed Mr. Mubridge, a very skilful photographer, to institute a series of experiments to that end.... When these experiments were made, it was not contemplated to publish the results; but the facts revealed seemed so important that I determined to have a careful analysis made of them. For this purpose it was necessary to review the whole subject of the locomotive machinery of the horse. I employed Mr. J.B.D. Stillman, whom I believed to be capable of the undertaking. The result has been that much instructive information on the mechanism of the horse has been revealed, which is believed to be new, and of sufficient importance to be preserved and published."'

April 12-page summary of Muybridge lecture to the Royal Institution printed, Syllabus of a Course of Two Lectures on the Science of Animal Locomotion in Its Relation to Design in Art. [Haas 133]

May 10 Fun English comic periodical: Muybridge-type (?) horse cartoon entitled The Last of his Race, probably spoof of a painting by Claude Calthrop. (p 189) [BL]

May 19 Francis Galton writes Royal Society report on 'dispute about scientific proprietorship' of photos ... unable to advise Society to order Mr Muybridge's paper to be presented [in Transactions or Proceedings].' Receipt of paper was however noted in Transactions.[Letter from Richard Brown to Stephen Herbert, 10 August 1997]. [Herbert 148]. The corresponding report by M. Foster does not appear to have survived.

May 30 writes to Marey, asking for his collaboration. [Braun 229]

May writes to Nature suggesting 'photo-finish' apparatus for horse races. [Ayers]

June 2 British Journal of Photography p.324. 'MUYBRIDGE'S PHOTOGRAPHS. Mr. Muybridge, who sails for America in the course of a few days, has been invited by the Liverpool Art Club to exhibit his photographs of the attitudes of animals in motion at one of their meetings. During his stay in Liverpool Mr. Muybridge will be the guest of Mr. J.J. Atkinson.'

June 3 cartoon parody of 'a horse race - not a burlesque' by 'Chip' appears in The Judge. [Hendricks 142]

June 5 lecture to Liverpool Art Club. [Herbert 119]

June 8 lectures at home of photographic dealer (and artist?) John J Atkinson. [Herbert 119]. [Note: John James Atkinson was name of Muybridge's attorney when he deposited Animal Locomotion plates for copyright at StationersŐ Hall in 1887. Details on National Archives (Kew) database]

June 9 'last evening ... and at a private lecture at the residence of Mr J[ohn] J Atkinson ... artists, scientists, photographers and others...' reports Liverpool Mercury. [Scrap]

June 12 The Scotsman article 'INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY.' [The Scotsman digital archive online]

June 13 sails for New York from Liverpool, on the Republic.

June 14 New York Times (Re: horse racing) 'Mr. MUYBRIDGE, so well known for his photographs of animals in motion, writes to Nature stating that there never can be such a thing as a dead heat, at least scientifically speaking.' (etc) [New York Times archive online]

June 23 text of lecture to Society of Arts (4 Apr) published in Journal of the Society of Arts. [Haas 134]

June 25 arrives New York. [Hendricks 149] OR July 4. [Haas 136] OR 26 June, from Liverpool England and Queenstown Ireland, on the Republic [New York Passenger Lists, ancestry.com]

June 26 New York Times 'Some of the July magazines: The Century.' 'Mr. Muybridge's published horse photographs furnish Mr. George E. Waring with an excellent topic in the July Century, and it ought to be matter for some surprise that none of our magazine writers with this fine opportunity for illustrations has seized upon this subject in advance of him.' [New York Times archive online]

June 29 Nature reviews Stillman's book ('[results] indebted to Mr J. Muybridge [sic]).' [Haas 310Q]

June 30 Photographic News, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

June Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

June Francis Galton makes montage of cyanotypes of Muybridge's photographs, Explanation, by composites of Muybridge's photographs, of the conventional representation of a galloping horse, by Francis Galton F.R.S. June 1882. 'The idea was to find the centers of gravity and the trends in movement associated with particular behaviors. Thus Galton joined the ranks of those devoted to analyzing and reinterpreting Muybridge's works.' [Prodger 162]

July The Century article by George E. Waring, 'The Horse in Motion', an extended, 8-page review of Stillman's book illustrated with drawings and silhouettes. Recognises Muybridge's contribution. 'We must see the horse on canvas as we see him in life, not as he is shown when his movements are divided by the five-thousandth part of a second.' (reviewed New York Times Jun 26).

July 17 Muybridge sends Marey sketches of wheel camera. [Hendricks] and letter re: finance from Robert C. Johnson. [Braun 231]

July 21 British Journal of Photography INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY v. EYESIGHT. MR. FRANCIS GALTON, whose researches in producing certain pictures each of which represented the average (so to speak) of a number of photographs, have been described and discussed in these columns, has recently - whether by what might be termed an act of inspiration or by a course of reasoning - hit upon an expedient which we do not hesitate to characterise as one of the most important and remarkable aids to ordinary vision that has ever been produced.....More

July 22 Muybridge content: La Nature (Mostly Marey?) [Hamilton bibliog]

July 28 Plattsburgh Sentinel, 'Mr Edward Muybridge predicts that in the near future the aid of photography will be sought to determine the resultof all important horse races. ...(etc)' [http://news.nnyln.org/plattsburgh-sentinel/search.html]


Library of Congress

July 29 Andrews' American Queen has cover potpourri of drawings from his photos. [Hendricks 149]

August 10 The Nation, '...horse, as represented in one of Muybridge's photographs, he finds that a certain group of successive positions may be selected in which the ...' [Google Newspaper archive search]

August 22 Newport, Rhode Island lecture. [Hendricks 149] Fairman Rogers, University of Pennsylvania trustee, attended the lecture. [Sarah Gordon]

September sues The Horse in Motion publisher Osgood and Company of Boston, for infringement of his copyright. Suit never brought to trial, dismissed without prejudice or costs.

September 9 Scientific American p167 article - (check Scrap).

September 14 commences legal action against Osgood. [Mozley 27]

September 15 Knowledge p.256 'how to see the attitudes of Animals in Motion' (from Scientific American).

September 16 La Nature includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

September ** commences legal action against Stanford?? re: Stillman's book, seeking $50,000 in damages. [Sol 268]

September 20 suit filed, Osgood (re: Stillman book). [Haas 137]

October 1 prosectus (or invitation flyer?) for lecture the Attitudes of Animals in Motion, a lecture by Eadweard Muybridge. Illustrated with the zoopraxiscope. Address given as: 22 Hawley Street, Boston, Mass.

October 13 illustration in Knowledge, drawing comparing the 'attitudes' shown in Muybridge's photographs with traditional artists' impressions of a moving horse. [Coe M & C 12]

October 19 Society of Arts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology lecture. [Hendricks 149]

October 20 Boston Journal, 'Animals in Motion' - 'the effect was weird yet fascinating.' [Scrap]

October 21 news item, Boston Daily Globe. [Hinton] 'ANIMALS IN MOTION. Science Upsetting the Theories of Observation. Instantaneous Photography Finds Horse in the Air. Professor Muybridge and His Queer Zoopraxiscope. A Horse In Any Given Gait. Immediately Divide the Weight. A Case of Absolute Suspension. The Yelling of [as?] the Drivers Leap a Four-Foot Hurdle.' [Boston Globe Historic Archives online]

October 23 Union Hall, Boston, public lecture The Romance and Realities of Animal Locomotion. [Hendricks 149] One of several, every evening (except Wednesday) for one week, with matinees Wed and Sat.

October 23 letter from Stanford to Dr Stillman re: Muybridge legal action over The Horse in Motion..

October 24 Evening Transcript, 'Animals in Motion.' [Scrap]

November 1 La Moniteur de la Photography reprints critical item from British magazine. [Mannoni (Crangle) 316]

November 4 Liverpool Mercury 'ATTITUDES OF ANIMALS IN MOTION. ...we have received from Mr. Muybridge sample slips of a silhouette reproduction of his photographs suitable for use in an ordinary zoetrope or "wheel of life," such as is used at children's parties. In this cheap form they will doubtless be a source of amusement and instruction to thousands who hitherto have only read about them.'

November 11 ART NOTES, Liverpool Mercury, Issue 10868. Arts & Entertainment. 'Muybridge...likely to be the plaintiff in a legal cause celebre '.

November 15 Photographic Times and American Photographer describes zoetrope strips with Muybridge images, available from Scovill Manufacturing Company. [Hendricks 120]

November 17 lecture, Turf Club New York City. [Hendricks 121] Romance and Reality of Animal Motion.

November 18 New York Times 'Realities of animal motion; Prof. Muybridge's explanation of his discoveries through his Zoopraxiscope.' Page 2, 412 words. 'Prof. Eadweard Muybridge, whose success in instantly photographing the motion of the horse in running has overturned all previous ideas on the subject, lectured last evening in the Turf Club Theatre under the auspices of the Turf Club...the wonderful effects produced by the zoopraxiscope were repeatedly applauded.' [New York Times archive online
http://select.nytimes.com]

November 18 New York Daily Tribune reports New York City lectures. [Taft intro]

November 18 The Sun (New York) 'All the Gaits of Horses' article. Lecture 'delivered last evening at the Turf Club Theatre'. [online]

November 19 New York Times Among others images displayed were Muybridge's sequence photos of horses from Palo Alto, plus his critique of some of Jean-Louis Meissonier's horse paintings, to point out the incorrect technique the French painter used before being exposed to Muybridge's work. (Is this the same piece as 18th Nov entry?) [http://www.arts.arizona.edu/buildingbetterhumans/Notes.html]

November 28 National Academy of Design lecture. [Hendricks 149]

November Anthony's Photographic Bulletin13:23, article 'Realities of Animal Motion'. [Ott 292]

December 22 National Academy of Design second lecture. [Hendricks 149]

December 22 British Journal of Photography p.734, 'THE ASSOCIATED SOIREE OF THE LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC, AND ART SOCIETIES OF LIVERPOOL', [Held Wed. 20th] St George's Hall. 'A great attraction in this room was a number of zoetropes exhibited by Mr. John J. Atkinson, of Manchester-street, Liverpool, and supplied with the now celebrated Muybridge pictures of running horses, dogs, &c. As these are sold at a most reasonable price we may safely predict for Mr. Atkinson, who is the sole agent for this country, a large and ready sale for them. Shutters of several forms were exhibited by Mr. Atkinson and others....' [checked BL]

Also in 1882:

** meets Ernest Webster, who later becomes his projectionist. [Hendricks 119]

** c. 1882 Views of San Francisco - Panoramic View of San Francisco, one of a series of "Souvenir Albums, Containing Photo-Views of All Notable American Cities, Scenery, Summer & Winter Resorts, Reproduced from Photographs by Louis Glaser's Process, published by Wittemann Brothers, 192 Fulton St., New York." 6 x 4 3/4 inches. Reduced six-leaf panorama (?) Based on Muybridge panorama of 1877, but with added human figures, horse-drawn carriages, etc. (Needs research). Another version, published by A L Bancroft & Company, San Fran (Whittemann Bros, 45 Murray St New York, are 'sole agents'). [Harris 124 item 35]

** Gazette des Beaux-Arts article by Georges Gueroult, 'Formes, Couleurs et Mouvements' criticizes oddity of Muybridge's analytical photographs. [Mozley 103]

Key to references [in square brackets]

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