Key to references [in square brackets]

Go to: 1877 1878 1879 1880


January 7 Muybridge's slides of Panama, Alaska, and Yosemite projected for Photographic Art Society, San Francisco. Muybridge not present.

** sets up shop 618 and 620 Clay street.

May 10 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition (photography section) Bradley & Rulofson exhibit Muybridge Yosemite photographs.

August exhibit at Mechanics' Institute Fair: Central America scenery photos exhibited.

September 16 Floredo enters orphanage.

September 16 'earliest representation of a horse in motion made by Muybridge,' two canvases by Thomas Kirby Van Zandt, horse Abe Edgington [Prodger 143] (similar canvas, finished, dated Feb 1877 - insert entry). [Prodger 143]

** writes to Mrs Pendegast (wife of trial judge). [Kingston ephemera]

** Central America photos awarded Gold Medal, Eleventh Industrial Exhibition, San Francisco, 1876. [Mozley 59]

** Currier and Ives publish second print of Occident, based on Muybridge photographs.


** 'Upon his return to California in ... 1876, Muybridge edited the hundreds of photographs from his voyage and published a selection the following year in an album titled The Pacific Coast of Central America and Mexico; the Isthmus of Panama; Guatemala; and the Cultivation and Shipment of Coffee. Ten are known to have survived.' [Brochure to accompany exhibition Eadweard Muybridge: The Central American Journey, 2007, Smithsonian American Art Museum.]

January photographs San Francisco Panorama from roof of Mark Hopkins residence. [Mozley 59]

before July 11 photographs panorama, 11 negatives [Harris 120, items 31 and 33] published as a 'boudoir set' (cards) and as an 'album set', Panorama of San Francisco from California Street Hill.

July/August publishes 11-panel Panorama of San Francisco from California Street Hill (album set, then later boudoir set). [Harris 120].

July takes instantaneous photograph of Stanford's horse Occident, at Sacramento(?) [Mozley 18]

July 22 Alta California article on panorama. [Clegg 116]

early/mid-year Muybridge makes un-retouched cabinet card photographs of 'Occident trotting' [Prodger 72, 147]. Phillip Prodger suggests that these may have been the photographs awarded prize (see November entry: 'awarded Gold Medal Twelfth Industrial Exhibition...').

August 2 letter to publisher of Alta California Fred McCrellish (with photo of Occident) 'a photograph made from a negative, which I believe to have been more rapidly executed than any other [OR: any ever] made hitherto...' [Haas 94] [Mac 21]

August 2 writes letter to Photographic News (published later) "When you did me the honour of asserting to Gov. Stanford your confidence in my ability..." (etc) [Photographic News p.456, Google Book Search]

August 3 San Francisco Alta California publishes description of 'Occident Photographed at Full Speed.' [Haas 93]

August 3 San Francisco Bulletin publishes report on photography of Occident, 'A Triumph of Photographic Art'. [Mozley 92]

August 4 San Francisco Bulletin reports new efforts in photographing the horse in motion...mentions Occident. Also mentions Muybridge expriments at sea. [Taft intro]

August 8 Nevada State Journal, ' ...negative of the moving horse ... one thousandth part of a second...' [Google news archive search]

August 11 Muybridge publishes motion painting/photo of Occident. [Haas 140. Date from??]

August 11 Daily Alta California: Stanford now wanted 'a series of views taken.' [Mannoni (Crangle) 308]

August 11 copyrights key to panorama. [Harris 118, item 32]

August 17 Decatur Daily Republican, from the San Franclsco Post. 'Mr, Maybridge, the artist, succeeded last July...' [Google News Archive search]

August 22San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin 'Mosaics. - THAT MARVELOUS PANORAMA, which Muybridge has taken, is creating a great furore among visitors. It is the most comprehensive and beautiful picture of San Francisco ever taken. Morse has it, at 417 Montgomery street.'

September 21 Photographic News, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog] p.455, 456. '...Mr. Muybridge intends to take a series of pictures, showing the step of 'Occident' at all its stages, and in this manner, for the first time, the precise differences in the motions of different horses can be clearly represented - a matter of much interest to horsemen...'

September 22 'Photographing a trotting horse', Hampshire Telegraph and Sussex Chronicle.

September San Francisco Evening Post: picture a fraud. [Mac 22]

September publishes flyer publicising his panorama. [Hendricks 91]

September letter to Stanford's assistant Alfred Poett, suggesting work moved from Sacramento to Palo Alto. [Prodger 147]

October 20 article in The Graphic with credit: 'Our engravings are from photographs by Mr. Muybridge, of San Francisco, forwarded to us by Mr. D.H.Brandon, Civil Engineer, 1 Rue Lafitte, Paris.'

October 29 letter to Poett, instructions for design of camera bench. [Prodger 149]

November 3 Receipt San Francisco Telegraph Supply Co. 'electrical photo apparatus'. [Prodger 148]

November proposes microphotography of San Jose official records, suggestion turned down. Appears before the Committee of the Board of Supervisors at 2pm on 8 November. [Mozley 114]

November 9 San Jose Mercury 'The Muybridge Process' - article about Muybridge's proposal to photograph the city records. [Reproduced in Mozley, 113 114]

November awarded Gold Medal, Twelfth Industrial Exhibition, San Francisco, for instantaneous photographs of Occident. [Haas 95]

December 21 French patent BF no.121,743 'méchanisme et transmission servant a distribuer avec précision l'heure a plusiers cadrans éloignés les une et les autres.' [Mannoni2]

** gouche painting of horse and sulky, with photo of head of driver superimposed by John Koch, Stanford University [Hinton]

** possible 14-part mammoth-plate panorama photographed late 1877, perhaps destroyed by fire. [Harris 122].

** The Photographic News: A Weekly Record of the Progress of Photography, p.456 'The following letter from Mr. Muybridge will be read with interest: San Francisco, August 2nd, 1877. EDITORS ALTA. When you did me the honour of ...'


January 5 files application for UK patent No.80: 'Improvements in Regulator Clocks'. Pneumatic/hydraulic clock synchronising system.

February 13 San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin 'WAS IT A MORTGAGE OR ACTUAL BILL OF SALE. The case of Edward J. Muybridge vs. Bradley & Rulofson is on trial ... an action to recover $5,000 damages for the destruction of four photographic negatives of Yosemite scenery and injury to twenty-one negatives of the same scenery, by dampness...'

March Scribner's Monthly article, "A TRIP TO CENTRAL AMERICA", by Ellsworth Westervelt. (Guatemala, etc). 'I cannot close without acknowledging my indebtedness to Mr. Muybridge, of San Francisco, for offering the use of his justly celebrated photographs to assist in illustrating this article.' Several engravings based on Muybridge photographs. [The Making of America collection at:]

Spring/Summer (circa, and before 8 July), likely date of final, 13-part, mammmoth-plate Panorama of San Francisco from California Street Hill,. ['spring or early summer' Mozley 62] Harris [122, item 34] says 'late June or early July.'

** orders 12 Scovill cameras, with Dallmeyer stereoscopic lenses. [Mozley 21]

May 18 gives 'second exhibition' of projected slides of his Central America photos, at Art Association Exhibition.

June 11 takes first sequence photographs in 1878-9 Palo Alto series. [?]

June 14 San Francisco Bulletin, article on Palo Alto horse sequence photography (reprinted in New York Times 23 Jun).

Press demonstration animation here. [click SLOW twice for best effect]

June 15 press demonstration, 12 photos (of horse Abe Edgington) shown. [Coe M & C 16]

June 16 San Francisco Chronicle, 'Set at Rest: The True Action of a Horse in Trotting Determined'. [Ott]

June 16 San Francisco Call 'A Wonder of the Century' [Ott]

June 22 Pacific Life describes the event: 'The most important experiments ever made in connection with electrophotography were brought to a successful conclusion on Saturday last, in the presence of Governor Stanford and a few invited guests at his race track at Palo Alto. The experiment in question was to reproduce the action of a horse at every point in his stride when trotting at a 2:20 gait...' [Mac 23]

June 22 California Rural Press publishes report of sequence photography. [Mozley 69]

June 23 New York Times 'Photographing a Race-horse'. 'A dozen photographs show the various positions of Occident's body, legs, and feet...' (reprinted from San Francisco Bulletin, 14 Jun). [New York Times archive online]

June 27 applies for US patent for sequence camera shutter, mechanical release: 'method and apparatus for photographing objects in motion' no.212865 (granted 4 Mar 1879).

July 8 and 9 San Francisco Bulletin, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

July 8 and 9 Daily Alta California report Muybridge's lantern lectures (given on three evenings, from 8 July(?)) at San Francisco Art Association Rooms, Pine Street. [Hecht 288/02] [Mac 25]

July 9 San Francisco Chronicle report on Art Association lecture. Horse sequence pictures, Central America photos, and panorama projected. [Musser 49]

July 9 San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin report: 'MUYBRIDGE'S EXHIBITIONS. -The stereopticon exhibition given by E.J. Muybridge last night at the rooms of the Art Association, to illustrate the action of a fast trotter in motion, was very successful. Another exhibition will be given tomorrow night, and again on Saturday evening. Views of Central and South America are also projected on the screen. The explanations are made by Mr. Muybridge in a very interesting manner.'

July 9 application British patent no. 2746 apparatus for taking instantaneous photographs of objects in motion. [Hinton]

July 11 application for US patent: 'Improvements in the Method and Apparatus for Photographing Objects in Motion.' [Mannoni (Crangle) 308] no.212,864 [Mannoni]

July 11 Daily Alta California, 'A Picture, Showing Movement'. [Ott]

July 11 and 13 San Francisco Bulletin, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

July 13 San Francisco Bulletin 'MUYBRIDGE'S LECTURE AND EXHIBITION. - This evening E.J. Muybridge will give his illustrated lecture on the motion of the trotting horse for the last time at the rooms of the Art Association on Pine Street near Kearney.'

July 17 applies for US patent for sequence camera shutter, electrical release: no.212864. also, patent applications for Germany and France. [Mannoni (Crangle) 308]

July 17 French patent BF no.125,692 'perfectionnements dans la prise des photographies instantanées d'objects en mouvement.' [Mannoni2 414]

July 26 The Photographic News (London) first publication in an English periodical of Muybridge's series photography. [Hecht 185]

Summer / Autumn six cards of The Horse in Motion, 'Automatic Electro-Photographs' published.

July 27 parody cartoon The Horse in Motion appears in San Francisco Illustrated Wasp. [Haas 140]

July 27 Scientific American includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

July-September further slide presentations, which include studies of horse in motion.

August Philadelphia Photographer letter by Rulofson, Muybridge's series photos 'bosh'. [Hecht 288/03] (but letter dated Nov 1878) [Mac 24]

August Photographic Times includes article in praise of Muybridge and Stanford sequence work. [Hamilton]

August 17 writes letter to Anthony's Photographic Bulletin re: Dallmeyer lenses. [Mozley 114]

September 18 and 19 Sacramento Bee, reports of Sacramento lectures. [Taft intro]

September Anthony's Bulletin: 'we have received ... pictures made ... of the action of a horse running ... the animal is seen in a series of grotesque positions.' [Mac 23] Also, letter of 17 August from Muybridge published, re: Dallmeyer lenses. [reproduced in Mozley 114]

October 19 Scientific American publishes article on his motion studies, with drawings based on photos of horse Abe Edgington. Suggests pasting pictures on strips for zoetrope viewing. [Taft intro]

November 21 Alta California: Thomas Eakins and Muybridge's photographic perspective. [Braun 232]

December 6 Janesville Gazette, The, 'Excellent Photographs of A trotter walking and moving at .... minute. ... and movements of a cantering horse Have Been Published ...' 'Muybridge's latest is a photograph of the stride of Mr. Stanlord's running mare Sallie Gardner ... as shown in eleven positions, and a twelfth mare standing added to the serles. Mr. Stanford has become so deeply interested in the work, that he has instructed Mr. MUYBRIDGE to purchase 12 more cameras ... With the double set of apparatus he intends having the movements of all domestic animals photographed. The results of these experiments ...' [Google News Archive search]

December 14 La Nature publishes article on his motion studies, illustrated with drawings from photos, 'Les allures du cheval'. [Intro, Animals in Motion], p.2]

December 15 San Francisco Call article on horse sequence phoography at Palo Alto (reprinted New York Times Dec 24).

December 18 Marey writes to Tissandier re: Muybridge sequence photos. [Mozley 116]

December 24 New York Times 'The actual movements of horses; some interesting discoveries made from the instantaneous photographs.' Page 3, 1202 words. 'Eastern horsemen are taking more interest in the instanteous photographs of Muybridge than is the case with the people here. Many inquiries and orders are received, and when the present are supplemented by those which it is intended to take, the question of action will be definitely settled.' (Reprinted from San Francisco Call Dec 15). [NYT archive online].

December 28 La Nature publishes Marey's letter to Tissandier re: Muybridge (bird photography, animation in zoetrope, etc).

Also in 1878:
** (1878) receives medal, San Francisco Industrial Exhibition. (?) [Ayers]

Item location not established: possibly Library of the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts

** (1878?) Les Allures du Cheval, French edition of the six-card set The Horse in Motion, published.

Card from the German set of The Horse in Motion. George Eastman House.

German set also published: Das Pferd in Bewegung.


January 4 Muybridge clock described and illustrated in La Nature No.292 (p.80) 'Horloge Pneumatique'.

January 9 receipt, California Electrical Works (timers for sequence work?) [Prodger 148]

January 11 Scientific American Supplement, 'A Horse's Movement Scientifically Considered'. [Ott]

January 25 Article 'Reproductions instantanee des allures du cheval, au moyen de lĠelectricite appliquee a la photographie', L'illustration (French magazine, p.58-59) by Emile Duhousset, author of books on horses and their gaits. He had mounted Muybridge sequence photographs in a zoetrope. Strips drawn from these pictures offered at 10 francs. [Hecht 298b] Reproduced in part in: [Hendricks 138] article (illustrated by 11 drawings by Duhousset based on Muybridge horse sequence photographs) actually mentions an 'animateur (ancien phenakisticope)'.

January Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

January Philadelphia Photographer announces that a descriptive circular of horse photographs could be secured from Muybridge 'or $1.50 each will bring you copies of the groups of positions.' [Taft intro]

February 15 'THE CONVERSAZIONE OF THE IPSWICH SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY' review of local event, Ipswich, England, includes details of photographer Mr. Vick displaying 'instantaneous photographs of a trotting horse, taken by electricity' and animated in a zoetrope. Vick later (c.1890) photographed Muybridge, and was also instrumental in arranging Muybridge's 1895 talk in Ipswich.

February 17 letter to Tissandier: 'Marey's work first inspired Stanford.' [Hecht 298A]

February 23 San Francisco Call 'Photographing the Race Horse in Motion' [Ott]

March 4 patents no.212864 and no.212865 issued: Method and Apparatus for Photographing Objects in Motion. [Mozley 22]

March applies for two patents. [Sol 267] (Should be 'two patents granted'?)

March 21 Watsonville Transcript reports Muybridge, 'probably head of his profession in the world, was in town this week'. Photographed James M. Rogers' residence, views of town from water company's tank, and other buildings. [Solnit 67]

March 22 Muybridge letter re: Marey published in La Nature.'Photographies Instantanees des animaux en movement' (from San Fran -- 17 Feb 1879).

March 22 Scientific American, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

March Philadelphia Photographer, includes Muybridge letter, re: Stanford disagreement. [Taft intro]

March Photographische Mittheilungen, Berlin, reports on Muybridge's 11 series photographs of a galloping horse. - further: published series images in July
- images also appeared in "Daheim". [Deac Rossell, email to SH]

April 3 Nature, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

April 12 Scientific Miscellany, Manchester Times (England), description of horse photography, from Nature.

April 19 L'Illustration offers zoetrope for 10 Francs, with images: 'sur des bandes de papier les silhouettes photographiques obtenues par M. Muybridge et representant tout les positions successives du cheval au gallop.' [Scrapbook]

April 20 Muybridge's photos discussed in Augenblicks Photographie. [Hecht 298D]

April 26 Berliner Fremdenblatt (Berlin) and Wiener Landwirthschaftliche (Vienna) publish details of 'The Horse in Motion' photographs. [Intro, Animals in Motion, p.2]

May begins second season at Palo Alto. Many different animals photographed. Cameras increased to 24. [Mozley 24]

May 23 letter to Scovill Manufacturing Company praising their camera.

May Philadelphia Photographer, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

June 19 Soiree, University College, Gower Street, London. Praxinoscope wih 'electro-magnetic engine' is demonstrated, and (later?) used with Muybridge horse silhouette sequences. (Details in July 18 English Mechanic article).

June 28 'The Paces of a Horse'. W. B. Tegetmeier, editor of The Field, states that he had mounted Muybridge photographs in a zoetrope: 'The action of the horse was immediately reproduced...' Sequence of galloping horse reproduced. [Mac 27] Note: surviving strips are actually for Reynaud praxinoscope. [Mannoni (Crangle) 309]

June 29 window of The Field attracts crowds to see Muybridge horse sequence in motion in zoetrope.

July 4 British Journal of Photography records The Field public zoetrope demo. [Hecht 299E]

July 9 Art Interchange: 'The Zootrope': D Fairman Rogers discusses series by Muybridge and by Eakins. [Mozley 117]

July 18 English Mechanic, 'INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHS OF HORSES' article, includes 12 silhouettes of galloping horse and rider for use in praxinoscope. ' mean of the telegraph and instantaneous photography and our humble instrument, the famous Derby winner could, without absenting himself from England, give lessons in the noble art of riding to his less experienced brother jockey across the Atlantic? T. Weisendanger.' [Scrap]

July artist Fairman Rogers mentions that he had constructed a zoetrope to animate drawings based on Muybridge photographic sequences.

July Photographic Times Muybridge letter to Scovill (praising cameras) printed, 'Fast Horses and Well-Made Apparatus'. [Hecht 298E] [Reproduced in Mozley 114]

August (or earlier), begins sequence photographs of humans in motion, including athletes from Olympic Club, San Francisco. [Mozley 24]

August 9 San Francisco Chronicle, 'MEN IN MOTION' 'Instantaneous Photographs of Athletic Exercises.' First mention of sequence photos of humans in motion. [Hecht 298J] [Scrap]

August 9 Scientific American Supplement reprints Fairman Rogers article from Art Interchange. Zoetrope idea 'had already occured to Gov. Stanford and Mr. Muybridge.' [Hend EMPM 169]

August 10 Call 'Photographing Athletes in Motion'. Muybridge photographs athletes from Olympic Cub. 'The various views will be made up in cabinet size, which Governor Stanford will take with him to Europe to show as an evidence of American progress in the art of photography, and while there he will also have two oil paintings made of each, one set of which he will present to the Olympic Club.' [Scrap]

August Horne and Thornthwaite give demo of praxinoscope with Muybridge horse pictures, to British Association, at Sheffield. [Hecht 299E]

September 18 Scientific American report of human locomotion studies.

[Ott 291]

** at about this time constructs a stereoscopic zoetrope, based on the Wheatstone mirror principle.

Autumn adopts motion sequence photographs into painted images for Zoogyroscope (later known as the Zoopraxiscope), and projects them privately.

December 23 San Francisco Call, 'CANINE PHOTOGRAPHY.' 'A Discovery Similar to that Made in Photographing Horses.' '...action of the celebrated dog Bulldoser, belonging to Nat Brooks, of this city...'. [Scrap]

** Thomas Eakins paints A May Morning in the Park, showing the four-in-hand of his friend and patron Fairman Rogers; the attitudes of the horses' legs, he calculated from Muybridge photographs. (Eakins owned a set of the published prints, from which he made lantern slides for teaching purposes at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Arts).

December 31 New York Times , 'A DOG'S MOVEMENTS PHOTOGRAPHED.'. (from the San Francisco Call, Dec 23) '...recorded by the "unerring finger of light...."' [New York Times archive online]

1879-80 Bertalan Szekely, Hungarian academic, produces (for teaching purposes?) sequence drawings and zoetrope strips based on Muybridge's sequence photographs of horses. [Prodger 164]


January 11 photographs the eclipse of the sun sequence from Palo Alto, later published as cabinet photo.

January 13 Professor Manly Miles lectures in New York using Palo Alto series photographs. (Muybridge is not mentioned in news report). Note: 'Manly Miles ... was the first, and at the time only, professor of "scientific agriculture" in the nation. In conjunction with the college's idea of learning by doing, his courses were primarily hands-on. He is famous for his brown overalls and his undying insistence on experimentation. He is lesser known for saving the [Michigan State University] campus. On October 8, 1871, the same fall that Chicago burned, Miles led an expedition of students to the woods where fires were threatening to interrupt Sunday services and the campus buildings. By applying scientific theory into matters of the utmost necessity, Miles saved the State Agricultural College.' [ ]

January 14 New York Times reports on Manly Miles lecture. 'PHOTOGRAPHED IN MOTION. INSTANTANEOUS PICTURES OF HORSES WHILE RUNNING AND TROTTING.' 'Prof. Manly Miles lectured before the New York Academy of Comparative Anatomy, in East-Thirty-fourth-street, last evening, on "The Horse in Motion"... profusely illustrated with views of celebrated trotting and running horses taken the new automatic electro-photographic process....A large gathering was present, including many veterinary surgeons and several distinguished horse fanciers. ... [they] frequently interrupted the Professor with loud applause. Artists and painters, Prof. Miles said, had always been wrong...' [New York Times archive online]

January 16 'new show - ballroom of Stanford's San Francisco house' with Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope. [Hendricks 115]

January 20 another showing of Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope at Stanford Residence. [Mozley 4 n.21] (?) (Date may relate to report in the Call dated 20 January; item in Scrapbook 'The Stanford Entertainment.' '...last Friday evening.' which was the 16th. [Scrap]

January 24 Daily Nevada State Journal (Reno), 'Muybridge, of San Francisco, surprised and de- lighted the scientific world by ... of a series of twelve instantaneous photographs of a galloping horse, ... ' [Google News Archive search]

January Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

February 5 Chester Daily Times Chester, Pennsylvania. article, 'Mr. Maybridge having been at ex-Governor Stanford's mansion...' (etc). [Google News search]

March 21 'showed some of his Zoopraxiscopic discs to visitors to Palo Alto.' [Hendricks 115]

March 27 'instrument which Mr Muybridge has christened the Zoogyroscope.' [Haas 120]

March 27 California Spirit of the Times account of Zoopraxiscope projections, including combined image of man jumping over bull. [Herbert]

May 3 Daily Alta Califoria, includes Muybridge content. [Hamilton bibliog]

May 3 Sacramento Daily Union, p.2 Invitation to May 4th 'Art Exhibition'.

May 4 first 'public' performance of Zoopraxiscope [Mosley 34 n.21] [Scrap] San Francisco Art Association (Review Alta California 5 May 1880) [Mozley 34 n.22] "Press preview". [Hendricks 115] + [Haas 120]

Section of Zoopraxiscope disc. (c) Kingston Museum (Photograph Stephen Herbert).

May 5 Daily Alta Califoria 'Muybridge's Magic Lantern Zoetrope': 'nothing was wanting but the clatter of hoofs upon the turf and an occasional breath of steam from the nostrils, to make the spectator believe that he had before him genuine flesh-and-blood steeds.' [Hend 234-242] [Musser 502 n.55, 56]

May 5 San Francisco Call, 'The Zoogyroscope: Photographs Illustrating Animals in Motion'. [Ott]. ('...Muybridge a hero...' [Hamilton 27] [Newhall: Photography, Essays and Images 141] includes projection of human figure. [Taft intro])

May 5 San Francisco Bulletin 'Photographing Motion'. Report of May 4 presentation. [Ott] [Hamilton 29]

May 5 San Francisco Chronicle, 'Moving Shadows': report of May 4 presentation. '... a very interesting exhibition at the rooms of the San Francisco Art Association last evening.' '...the effect was precisely that of an animal running across the screen.' [Musser 50]

May 5 repeat lecture at San Francisco Art Association. 'The exhibition will be repeated for the benefit of the public this evening.' ['Moving Shadows', San Francisco Chronicle May 5].

May 8 San Francisco Call 'The Zoogyroscope.' [Scrap?]

May 8 California Spirit of the Times 'Depreciation. Effects of Instantaneous Photography'. '...all of the former representations of horses in motion are reduced to worthless frauds...' [Newhall: Photography, Essays & Images]

May 8 San Francisco Newsletter 'The Horse in Motion'. [Ott 317]

May 9 SF Call, 'The Benefits of Muybridge's Interesting Discovery'. [Ott]. ('Flash of light' demonstration described.) [Herbert]

May 15 delivers album of animals in motion (Attitudes?) to Stanford. [Sol 268] Should be 1881?

May 19 New York Times (From the San Francisco Call, May 5.) 'The Zoogyroscope; interesting exhibition of photographs of animals in motion.' 'A private exhibition of the zoogyroscope was given by E.J. Muybridge, the photographer, at the gallery of the San Francisco Art Association, last evening. Mr. Muybridge has been engaged during the past two years in making photographic representations of animals in motion, under the patronage of Gov. Leland Stanford, at the residence of...' [New York Times archive online]

May 20 LITERARY MISCELLANY, Leeds Mercury (England), Issue 13147. Arts & Entertainment. Report from San Francisco: Muybridge presentation.

June 5 Scientific American publishes article on Muybridge, reports San Francisco Zoopraxiscope projection. [Hend EMPM 169]

June 12 Colorado Miner (Georgetown, Clear Creek County) 'Scientific Miscellany' brief report of Zoopraxiscope []

June 21 The Scotsman 'RECENT ADVANCES IN PHOTOGRAPHY.' [The Scotsman digital archive online]

July Anthony's Photographic Bulletin includes Muybridge? [Hamilton bibliog]

August files patent for method of and apparatus for photographing changing or moving object. [Solnit 268]

August 28 Manitoba Daily Free Press (Winnipeg) , 'Stonehenge and other writers on the horse have asserted that that quadruped, in trotting, ... Muybridge shows that it is in all cases the heel. ... ' [Google News Archive search]

September Cassell's Family Magazine (London) The Zoogyroscope [Zoopraxiscope] described. [Hecht 302c]

September 18 Land and Water (London) 'an exhibition, illustrating by means of the zoogyroscope, now being given here.' ('here' being USA.) [Herbert 148n.50]

Key to references [in square brackets]