LINKS to key web resources

[last updated January 2010. Thanks to Charl Lucassen for additional links]

Biographical material
Exhibitions (online), Festivals and Awards
Modern photographic, film, videographic, and digital motion experiments and artworks
Modern products
Museum collections and exhibitions, Muybridge material
Muybridge movies, and videos on YouTube and GoogleVideos
Online articles and reviews
Paintings and drawings inspired by Muybridge's sequence photography
Theatrical works, screenplays, and music
Then and now, photographs


100 ANIMAL LOCOMOTION PLATES, animated for the web by UCR/California Museum of Photography.

ANIMAL LOCOMOTION PLATES, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

ANNIE: GALLOP Muybridge's chronophotographs. In the space below, you can display Muybridge's photographs of a mare called Annie galloping.


1893 PAPER ZOOPRAXISCOPE DISC ANIMATED A couple waltzing [flickr]

ZOOPRAXISCOPE DISC ANIMATED #29 Mule Bucking and Kicking [flickr]. The original is hand coloured, in the Eastman Foundation Collection.

Biographical material

BIOGRAPHY Who's Who of Victorian Cinema Biography

BIOGRAPHY A good online biography is on the absolute astronomy site. (When you get there, scroll down to 'Encyclopedia'.)

LARKYNS Killing of Major Harry Larkyns. Source: [Lyman L. Palmer], History of Napa and Lake Counties, California (San Francisco: Slocum, Bowen & Co., 1881).


COMICBOOK BIOGRAPHY (4 pages) 'The Life of Eadweard Muybridge "Grandfather of Motion Pictures"', in Camera Comics No.4, Spring 1945, U.S. Camera Publishing Corporation, Chicago, Illinois. Several panels feature in the article 'The Historiographics of Victorian Cinema' by Stephen Herbert, at:

A pdf file of the full 4-page item is available for free DOWNLOAD here.

COMICBOOK BIOGRAPHY (1 page) 'Eadward Muybridge' (sic), in Living Pictures. The Invention of Cinema, by Ray Zone and Chuck Roblin (Ray Zone and Trafford Publishing, c.2003). Previously serialized in American Cinematographer. Details of how to purchase here:

CHRONOPHOTOGRAPHY AND COMICS 'Comics and the Critique of Chronophotography, or "He Never Knew When It Was Coming!"' by Scott Bukatman, Department of Art and Art History, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Animation, Vol. 1, No. 1, 83-103 (2006)
In the wake of Muybridge's and Marey's experiments in recording movement, comics quickly began to emphasize the depiction of continuous movement. Chronophotography mapped the kinetic body onto the regulated spaces of industrial culture: it was a means of revealing the body and a tool for its containment and control. Comics by Wilhelm Busch, Steinlen, Winsor McCay and others, however, mimic the fixed viewpoints and measured progress of chronophotography, but caricature the instrumental reason that supplied its motivation..
Access by payment:

PHOTOGRAPHY A.B. FROST EAKINS MUYBRIDGE . The Photographic Dimension (2) : The Muybridge/Eakins Connection, by Thierry Smolderen, 2002 (Artist A.B. Frost, Eakins, Muybridge.) [no longer at this URL] Important article. Try here:*/

Exhibitions (online), Festivals and Awards

AWARD Muybridge Award - International Society of Biomechanics. The Muybridge award is the most prestigious award of the Society. It is awarded for career achievements in biomechanics.
2009 recipent: Mimi Koehl
Mimi Koehl tinkers with machines. Some are so tiny they can t be seen by the naked eye, and some disappeared millions of years ago. But Mimi isn't a mechanic. She s a biomechanist. Mimi Koehl uses engineering and physics to study the designs of living things that fly, swim, drift, and crawl. She loves solving riddles about how creatures from feathered dinosaurs to flying frogs live and move. Mimi s curiosity has led her into all kinds of natural neighborhoods. She has braved turbulent waters to explore how giant green sea anemones survive crashing waves. In Chile, while studying seaweeds, a rogue wave washed Mimi off one cliff and slammed her into another one. But nothing stops her desire for discovery. To uncover answers, Mimi has attached leashes to microscopic animals and created ingenious models using raspberry gelatin and even Silly Putty. Today Mimi searches the world and her imagination for answers to life s challenging mysteries.
From: Nature's Machines: The Story of Biomechanist Mimi Koehl 2006.

Award Details (list of winners)

EXHIBITION Time Stands Still: Muybridge and the Instantaneous Photography Movement February 15 - May 16, 2004 The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA).

FESTIVAL Welcome to the Muybridge Festival Projection Website.

EXHIBITION Indepth Arts News: "Telling Time: The relationship between time and the still image." 2000-10-18 until 2001-01-14, National Gallery London, UK.

Modern photographic, film, videographic, and digital motion experiments and artworks (post 1960)


EARLY MUYBRIDGE WEBSITE. By Jessica Helfland & William Drenttel (Discovery Channel Online, c.1995).
"Launched in 1994, Discovery Channel Online was designed to evolve in complexity as the (then-new) technology grew to support it. Combining daily story postings, programming highlights, interactive games and great storytelling (a profile on Edweard [sic] Muybridge, for example) it was designed to embrace new narrative opportunities: shorter, non-scrolling text screens, hyperlinks edited for brevity and impact, and images optimized for fast downloading."

HORSE SEQUENCE RE-ENACTMENT Eadweard Muybridge Horse Series Re-enactment - by Jim Batty.

MOTION ARTWORK Andrew Carnie's artwork, 2004 Stanley Picker Gallery, Kingston

HOLOGRAMS Multiplex holograms - from Eadweard Muybridge's studies of the human figure in motion. Dr. David Pizzanelli."> [no longer online]

VIDEOGRAPH Gabor Body "Homage to Eadweard Muybridge" 1980. The Hungarian filmmaker realizes one of his first videographic experiments exploring the heritage of Muybridge. Stills from "Homage to Eadweard Muybridge"

MOTION CAPTURE Horse Locomotion. Horse Movement & Motion Capture Data. (Company: Kinetic

MOTION CAPTURE Digital Muybrideg project, NYU.

FILM Eadweard Muybridge, Zoopraxographer (1975) Directed by: Thom Anderson, Cast: Dean Stockwell. Details:


Modern products

FLIP BOOKS Eadweard Muybridge Flipbooks. Two (?) published in Japan, with drawings from the animated film Muybridge's Strings.


FLIP BOOKS Eadweard Muybridge Flipbooks. Several sets published by Optical Toys of Vermont, since 1991. All images from Animal Locomotion. Over 200,000 sold.

SEE another one in action


SCANIMATION Animated picture books. Images based on Muybridge sequences.


MURAL Castle Street, Kingston Upon Thames. Study of Eadweard Muybridge Photographer, Cinematic Pioneer, Kingston resident. In community partnership with: Royal Borough of Kingston, Kingston Museum & Kingston Local History Room, St Luke's Primary School. A discovery project of Kingston's most famous resident. A 21st century perspective on the photographer Muybridge by using one of his original ideas in a modern context to make a huge mosaic to cover a graffiti wall. The competition winner and design inspiration is by Ellie Felicien aged 11 from St Luke's Primary School. More than 300 young people from local schools and ... Save The World Club's successful after schools art club joined together to make the image into a mosaic reality. The work is a stunning addition to the town centre and will become part of the heritage museum history walk. The project was led by Miriam Zadik Gold. Created in 2004. Muybridge Mosaic opening ceremony Sat 2 October 2004, 11am, Castle Street, Kingston.
(Study of Eadweard Muybridge.15 sq metre 'moving' image work for central Kingston Castle Street on a wall previously painted out daily by Town Centre Management to combat graffiti. Part of the Muybridge Centenary Celebrations October 2004. Winner of Kingston Society Townscape Award.)

MURAL Jane Gifford Muybridge Mural, 1992. Based on Muybridge's animal photographs, within an abstract, geometric framework - to reflect local history:- Muybridge's birthplace, to appeal to children passing the site towards the creche, to enhance architecture with introduction of movement and rich colour. Acrylic paint, plaster."> [no longer online]

MURAL Epoch, Patrick Nagatani, 1996.TOURING THE GATEWAY TRANSIT CENTER (Los Angeles), by Robin Dunitz, MCLA Tour Director. '... Inside this Boardroom Entrance Area is Patrick Nagatani's 'Epoch.' The theme of this collage is transportation, both from an individual and a global perspective. It uses NASA photos of the earth as seen from space, more than 500 portcards, and in the center an image from Eadweard Muybridge's pioneering photographic studies, published in 1887, on human locomotion. It was this depiction of Muybridge's nude men in motion that caused a short-lived controversy when the mural was unveiled. It was even covered for a day or two, until others protested such prudishness. Original prints of Muybridge's revolutionary work (it changed forever how artists represent human movement) are viewed daily by visitors to the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu.

Epoch, Patrick Nagatani, 1996. Collage Mural. MTA building, 3rd level. For some time, part of the mural was covered due to a complaint regarding the naked male figure from Muybridge's 'running man' photographs. For more information on this, read: Richard Simon, 'Art buffs back buff art', Los Angeles Times Metro section (January 19, 1996), p.1+.


Museum collections and exhibitions, Muybridge material

CYANOTYPES Muybridge Cyanotypes.


PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS ETC. University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. Selected Items from the Eadweard Muybridge Collection

PANORAMA SAN FRANCISCO Muybridge Panorama of San Francisco, 1878 Presented to Mrs. Leland Stanford by Muybridge."> [no longer online here, but try:

PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS The Sidney D. Markman Collection of Eadweard Muybridge Prints. Photographs of colonial architecture, landscapes, coffee plantations, and daily life in Central America, taken in 1875."> [no longer online here, but try:

PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS AND COLLOTYPES MoMA - The Collection. Eadweard J. Muybridge. (British, 1830-1904).

PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS Yosemite: Its Wonders and Its Beauties (1868) by John S. Hittell. Photographs by Eadweard J. Muybridge "Helios".
Yosemite: Its Wonders and Its Beauties was an early guide book to Yosemite. Some claim this was the first Yosemite guide book. Hittell's book was not highly original (it quotes heavily from books and accounts by Josiah D. Whitney, Samuel Bowles, Horace Greeley, and Thomas Starr King). However, the book is interesting because it is the first Yosemite book with photographs. It has 20 original photographs by early Yosemite Photographer Eadweard Muybridge. These were albumen photographs tipped in by hand in every copy of the book. John Hittell commissioned Muybridge ". . . because no engravings could do justice to the scenes, or convey perfect confidence in the accuracy of the drawing of such immense elevations as those of Tutucanala and Tissayac." - Text from this website:

PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS ETC. Smithsonian Exhibition - Freeze Frame

STEREOGRAPHS Lone Mountain College Collection of Stereographs by Eadweard Muybridge, 1867-1880.
The Muybridge Lone Mountain Collection of photographs consists of 1700 stereographs, 6 albums and 39 individual photographs taken during the years 1867 to 1880. Most of the albums contain single stereo size images arranged in Muybridge's series number order and are imprinted with his "Helios" trade name. These albums may represent his own record of his work. He spent most of his time from 1867 to 1873 photographing California, Alaska and the Pacific Coast; this work is documented in Catalogue of Photographic Views Illustrating the Yosemite, Mammoth Trees, Geyser Springs, and Other Remarkable and Interesting Scenery of the Far West, by Muybridge, published by Bradley and Rulofson in 1873.

STEREOVIEWS Stereoscopic views of the Yosemite Valley from the Robert N. Dennis collection, New York Public Library.

STEREOVIEWS Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. Eadweard J. Muybridge Stereoviews.

STEREOVIEWS Modoc War stereographs (Calisphere).

COLLOTYPES Boston Public Library. Animal Locomotion (almost complete set).

Muybridge movies, tv shows, and videos on YouTube, GoogleVideos, Vimeo

A selection of the best Muybridge-related videos on YouTube. I've chosen those which add creatively to Muybridge's images, or manipulate them in an imaginative way, rather than just animating the photographs mechanically.


My Bridge of Words (Alex Itin)

Animated caligraphy.


              Muybridge Experiment from alejandra anton on Vimeo.

Muybridge Experiment (alejandra anton)

A Dream of Pastures: Nuit Blanche 2008 (Hindson F Chan)

A Dream Of Pastures is an interactive sculpture and animated light projection. On a gallery or public exterior wall, the familiar form of a horse glows. On a pedestal several meters in front of it, a stationary bicycle beckons for investigation from the viewer.

As the viewer pedals the bicycle, he discovers that the phantom horse moves accordingly, animated by a nearby system of projecting lights and turning gears. The viewer pedals more vigorously, the gears rotate at a quicker rate, and the horse breaks into a gallop. Sitting in the saddle, the viewer creates a shadow that lines up with the horse, casting himself as a jockey in the projected world, galloping through the empty pastures of a fictitious landscape at an exhilarating pace.

A Dream of Pastures debuted to a one-night audience of over 60 000 viewers, and over 1000 riders as part of Toronto's Nuit Blanche festival in 2008.


James Burke : Connections, Episode 9, "Countdown", 4 of 5.
Before Adam Hart-Davis there was James Burke. From the popular 70s tv series. Plenty of half-right statements on the soundrack, but interesting as one of the few re-enactments of the Palo Alto photography to be committed to film.

The world was changing (4:51) part of a BBC Four production with Rebecca Solnit
(who explains about Moybridge, rather than Muybridge.) Why "Moybridge"?
The World was Changing

rafaelbfalconi. 3d animation. Research on: Classic movie Stagecoach (1938); Muybridge photos for the horse motion
Stagecoach in Desert

Hindley Community High School Wigan
Muybridge [shown above]

Experimenting with xerox and Muybridge pics
L'Homme qui Marche

Synth mix, with visuals in many graphic styles - including several manipulated Muybridge sequences
A.Herner (aakkooss) Bon Voyage mix (B version)

Heavily manipulated Muybridge images
MuyBridge Modernized

Students' animation
Muybridge Animation

George Snow's colourful and dynamic re-working of Muybridge images"> Muybridge Revisited [REMOVED BY THE USER]

Short film by Xavier Sanson
Le Cheval de Muybridge

Galloping horse in a praxinoscope
Muybridge ED. Praxinoscope-ZOOTROPE

Paper motion sculptures inspired by Muybridge sequences
Solar Powered Kinetic Animal Sculptures

Re-using motion information in Muybridge sequence
Rhino test based on Muybridge horse running

Funny-cartoon style horse and rider
Horse Animation (Edweard Muybridge)

Brief animation by Grant Harding
The Adventures of Muybridge

Interview with author of Muybridge poem
Author Rob Winger on Ottawa News

Toys animated, a la Muybridge sequences
(21) Stikfas Fun

San Francisco Panorama revisited
From Light To Night

Projections onto buildings, Muybridge's home town
Kingston in a new light


Online articles and reviews

ARTICLE The Anti-Cinema of Eadweard Muybridge, by David Levy.
here .

ARTICLE . The Photographic Dimension (2) : The Muybridge/Eakins Connection, by Thierry Smolderen, 2002 (Artist A.B. Frost, Eakins, Muybridge.) [no longer at this URL] Important article. Try here:*/

REVIEW Revelation, Occlusion and Some Serious Misunderstandings. By Jean Baird (article on Jonathan Shaw and Muybridge / Marey).

REVIEW Pictures of a revolution. Liz Jobey on Motion Studies, Rebecca Solnit's attempt to put Eadweard Muybridge at the centre of 19th century perception of time and space.

ARTICLE The Man Who Stopped Time. Photographer Eadweard Muybridge stunned the world when he caught a horse in the act of flying. By Mitchell Leslie (Stanford Magazine 2001).

POETRY Muybridge's Horse. By Rob Winger 0-88971-231-X Nightwood Editions 200 pages Paperback May 2007.

ARTICLE Image [&] Narrative - Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative - ISSN 1780-678X Muybridge with(out) Marey. Rereading Aaron Scharf's Art and Photography. By Jan Baetens, Published: July 2000

REVIEW Portland's August First Thursday Gallery Openings. Muybridge, Futurists, Cubists, and more. Aug 16th, 2008.

POETRY REVIEW Review of Rob Winger's Muybridge's Horse (booklength poem).

ARTICLE Friday 08.15.08 'Artist Talks at Russo' Eadweard Muybridge and The Matrix.

ARTICLE Muybridge Mystery Photograph of Arizona Camp Grant Massacre Trial - 1871.

ARTICLE Native American life in Yosemite Valley. A trip into early Yosemite American Indian life. Ahwahnee's blog. Fri, 2006-07-07 14:37.

ARTICLE Muse-ings: Thoughts on photography and what inspires it - books, poetry, film, art. And various other ramblings. Sunday, March 02, 2008. "Muybridge's Horse" - Rob Winger.

REVIEW / ARTICLE Eadweard Muybridge Revisited, With Others. By CHARLES HAGEN. Published: March 6, 1992. For a brief moment last summer, "Motion and Document -- Sequence and Time: Eadweard Muybridge and Contemporary American Photography" flared into prominence...

ARTICLE Notes from the Underground Part Five - Escaping Muybridge's Curse (Can We?) Jean Detheux continues his series on the nature of art and draws us to understand that perhaps mimicking reality isn't a true representation of the world. Animation World, January 24, 2003. By Jean Detheux.<ype=columns

ARTICLE (SUBSCRIPTION OR PAYMENT) Prestige, Professionalism, and the Paradox of Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion Nudes, in Pennsylania Magazine of History and Biography, Vl.130 No.1, January 2006, by Sarah Gordon.

ARTICLE Flying Horse: Eadweard Muybridge's Contribution to Motion Study, The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, October 2003, by Sonya F. Premeaux.;col1

WEBSITE ARTICLE Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion Study: The Role of the University of Pennsylvania. University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania,

WEBSITE ARTICLE A Picture Puzzle, by Paul Dorpat Pacific Northwest. Seattle Times Magazine [view of Madison Street- was it by Muybridge?]


Paintings and drawings inspired by Muybridge's sequence photography

PAINTINGS Michael Milburn Foster - The Dancers & The Muybridge Series (2008).

WORDLE Brian Clegg - Muybridge Wordle (2008).

PAINTINGS Sidonie Caron (2008).


Theatrical works, screenplays, and music

THEATER, VIDEO, RADIO Muybridge - "Unsupported Transit"
(Genesis Foundation), c.2007.

This project is a cross-genre video opera. OperaGenesis has been working in partnership with Opera North's Dominic Gray to develop this piece about photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge. After initial work at the ROH in early 2007, the project has been rehearsing in Leeds, and a fully staged studio version of the latest draft was performed to an invited audience in Opera North's the new studio theatre in November.

The project is fascinating for its simultaneous and integrated use of live singers, chamber ensemble and video cameras. At present OperaGenesis is discussing with Opera North revisions sto the work to create a more compact, accessible version for performance. It is also possible that the piece might have a future directly to screen as a short TV opera (the writer and composer both having worked extensively in television), or even as a radio opera (on the model of Dominic Muldowney's Red Razzamatazz, a Radio 3 commission).


THEATER Studies in Motion: the Hauntings of Eadweard Muybridge. (Electric Company - very live theater.)
review of Studies in Motion (2009)


Publicity for the The Playhouse Theater, Vancouver, regarding the new production 2008-09:
August 11, 2008
The Playhouse is also thrilled to present The Electric Company's Studies in Motion: The Hauntings of Eadweard Muybridge. With a revised script from Kevin Kerr, new choreography by Crystal Pite, and updated video and lighting design from Robert Gardiner, this production follows The Electric Company's practice of continually re-imagining their shows on each new production. The cast and crew, under the direction of Kim Collier, will be fully professional, including returning cast members Andrew Wheeler as Eadweard Muybridge, Ryan Beil, Allan Morgan, Dawn Petten, Anastasia Phillips, Kyle Rideout, Juno Ruddell, Erin Wells, and Jonathon Young.

Publicity still from 2010 production.

THEATER Exposure. Play by Frank Whately

Scene from Exposure

Lawrence Speck (left) played Muybridge, Ben Barnes played Larkyns

2003 Exposure: A biographical play based on Eadweard Muybridge's life (the great grandfather of the cam corder) Ben Barnes played Harry Larkyns, a handsome adventurer who had an affair with Muybridge's wife, Flora. KUDOS (Kingston university drama on stage) team performed the play at the Edinburgh Fringe in 2003. Lawrence Speck as Muybridge, Abigail Deeley as Flora, Roger Kennedy as the defense lawyer.

SCREENPLAY Freezing Time. The tumultuous life of the Godfather of Cinema, his collaboration and conflict with the Governor of California his trial for the murder of his wife's con-man lover, and his relentless pursuit of the art of motion pictures. Screenplay by Keith Stern.

Posters: The Photographer - Far From The Truth. Performed by the Philip Glass Ensemble, 1984.

MUSIC The Photographer. A Music-Drama in Three Acts (1983). Music by Philip Glass.

THEATER The Photographer.
PHILIP GLASS'S 'PHOTOGRAPHER', By JOHN ROCKWELL New York Times (Art) October 7, 1983.

THEATER The Photographer. New York magazine, 24 October 1983.

THEATER The Trial of Muybridge. Play, opened at the Painted Bride Art Center, Philadelphia, Sep 29, 1983. Authors Sondra Brownell and John Musall. Philadelphia Inquirer THEATER: 'MUYBRIDGE'

Then and now, Photographs

PHOTOGRAPHS Panama photographs, then and now.