Chronological listing of Muybridge's photographic work.

MUYBRIDGE'S PHOTOGRAPHIC PROJECTS (including format details)

Compiled by Marek Pytel, with additions by Stephen Herbert.

This is a working notebook. It has not been fact checked, and is incomplete. Please do not cite or copy.


San Francisco, Photographer: Helios



San Francisco views:

SF Bay Views / SF Buildings & Streets/ Government Military Installations
Clouds / Water / Trees

Moonlight / Sunlight effects

First photographic trip: Yosemite,
72 no: 6 x 8in views

114 no: stereos: each frame: 3.5 x 3in, including:
Bridal Veil Meadow, El Capitan Meadow, Sentinel Meadow, Stonman Meadow, Canyon of Merced, Rim of Valley Area, High Country Area.
'Scenery of the Yosemite Valley': 20 no: 6 x 8in views on 14 x 18in backing.


Alaska : Sitka, (August)

Canada, Vancouver Island

Lighthouses of Pacific Coast,
70 no: stereoviews
13 no: large plate 7 x 9in & 17 x 21in

Farallon Islands


Geyser Springs

San Francisco

San Francisco Earthquake

Seven-Part Stereoview Panorama of San Francisco (from Rincon Hill)


Back of stereoview. A.P. Day Collection

Woodward's Gardens

San Francisco industrial / commercial / news photographs

Buena Vista Vineyard Sonoma
8 prints, 30 stereoviews


San Francisco Lighthouses

Press release photograph from the exhibition - Helios: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change, Corcoran Gallery, Washington, 2010.


Private collection

Second photographic trip : Yosemite
'Views of the Valley of the Yosemite, The Sierra Nevada Mountains and The Mariposa Grove of mammoth Trees'
including Mammoth negatives 20 x 24
51 no: 18 x 22in views
36 no: 5.5 x 8.5in views
379 no: Stereoviews: each frame: 3.5x 3in

'The Stanford Sacramento Home' for Leland Stanford
23 negatives 6 x 10in

May ?
'Occident' 1st Instantaneous horse photographs at Sacramento racetrack (?) for Leland Stanford (Not Located)


Modoc Indians & Lava Beds
5-part Stereoview Panorama of Tule
12-part Stereoview Panorama of Lava Beds

'Pacific Northwest Series' Stereoviews:
Columbia River , The Dalles, Cascade Range
Seven-part Panorama of Portland, Oregon

Railroads, including stereviews, including:
Central Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, Californian Pacific Railroad

Point Bonita / Stranded Costa Rica ship

'Occident' 2nd session Instantaneous horse photographs at Sacramento racetrack (?) for Leland Stanford (Not Located)

'Occident' colour lithograph, copyrighted by Currier & Ives


Press release photograph from the exhibition - Helios: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change, Corcoran Gallery, Washington, 2010.

(The Celebrities were not photographed by Muybridge.)


Press release photograph from the exhibition - Helios: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change, Corcoran Gallery, Washington, 2010.

Pacific Coast of Central America and Mexico: The Isthmus of Panama, Guatemala and the cultivation and shipment of Coffee. 5 copies only, hand-produced albums [?]
200 no. 6 x 9in views (varying in both dimensions)
125 + no. stereoviews: each frame: 3.5 x 3in
Colon, Panama City, Guatemala, Las Nubes
11-part panorama of Guatemala City taken from Carmen Hill

Panama (United States Coast and Geodetic Survey)


Central America photos published.

Back of photograph shown below.

'Carte de Visite Imperial' format.
Images are reproduced here by courtesy of Vicente Pascual.


First 360-degree Panorama of San Francisco from California Street Hill - from Hopkins Tower.
11 no. plates 8 x10in - 8ft long

Second Instantaneous horse photographs of 'Occident' for Leland Stanford

Second 360-degree Panorama of San Francisco from California Street Hill from Hopkins Tower.
17 no. plates 20 x 16in - 17ft long

Copy photographs of paintings by Norton Bush
Albumen prints from wet plate collodion glass negatives
21 no. prints 11.5 x 19.5in

Copy photograph of a painting of Occident by John Kosch
Albumen print from wet plate collodion glass negative
1 no: print 4 x 8.5in


Fire destroys George Morse Gallery, where much of Muybridge's material was stored: All Central America negatives and San Francisco panoramas 1 & 2 lost. (According to one source, but not confirmed).

The Stanford San Francisco Home Album Hand-produced album for client.
Leland Stanford's Nob Hill Mansion
Albumen prints from wet plate collodion glass negatives
41 no. prints 5.5 x 9in
65 no. negatives 6 x 10in

3rd 360 degree Panorama of San Francisco from California Street Hill - from Hopkins Tower.
13 no. plates 20 x 16in - 11ft long
Panorama photograph with newly superimposed KEY is HERE.

First serial photographs horses and other animals - Stanford's Palo Alto farm

The Horse in Motion. Automatic Electro-Photograph , copyright 1878 by Muybridge -
Set of 6 photographic cards (multi-panel image and text printed on face of card, extra text on reverse):
Abe Edgington trotting at 2:24 gait
Abe Edgington trotting at 8 min gait
Abe Edgington trotting at 15 min gait
Mahomet Cantering at 8 min gait
Sallie Gardiner running at 1:40 gait
Occident trotting at 2:20 gait.
(Also: French version 'Les Allures du Cheval', and German version.)

Note: the version illustrated in A. V. Mozley's book Muybridge: the Stanford Years, and in Phillip Prodger's Time Stands Still, is different, the images being cropped more tightly, and each image being larger, with narrower margins between pictures. Also, there was an earlier version or versions of a similar card, but with the individual pictures cut and pasted onto the card. [Details to follow.]

California: Muybridge starts public lectures with Lantern slides


Further series photographs, first animals and from August athletes, taken at Palo Alto.

Muybridge constructs stereoscopic zoetrope based on Wheatstone principle to view stereoscopic animations of series photographs.

Develops Zoogyroscope / Zoopraxiscope moving image projector


Phases of the Eclipse of the Sun, 11 January 1880
Composite image albumen print from wet plate collodion glass negative
1 no: 3.5 x 4.5in

Zoogyroscope (later Zoopraxiscope) used in public lectures

Series of 16in diameter glass discs: Images painted in silhouette B&W. One disc, of horse skeleton, uses actual photographic images on glass.


A page from The Attitudes of Animals in Motion (Plate 82).

'The Attitudes of Animals in Motion' photographic album copyrighted.
Albumen (?) prints from wet plate collodion glass negatives.
203 no: 6.5 x 9.5in



The Horse in Motion - JDB Stillman & Leland Stanford, is published.
Illustrations from Muybridge photographs


Sequence photography, University of Pennsylvania.
Estimated no: 100,000 gelatin dry plate glass negatives (20,000 approx published as 781 collotype plates)
Cyanotype prints from negatives produced for editing purposes.

Muybridge notebooks / techniques, here:

Extra b/w Zoopraxiscope discs produced after 1884-5 photo sessions


Animal Locomotion is published.
781 collotype plates 19 1/8 x 24 3/8in overall (including borders)


Zoopraxographical Hall: Chicago World's Fair

32 (approx) no. x 12in diameter glass discs: Images are line drawings, photographically transferred to glass, and hand coloured [1893-4]


Animals in Motion is published
195 plates 264pp Half tone reproduction 9.5 x 12in


Human Figure in Motion published
183 plates 277pp Half tone reproduction 9.5 x 12in

The photographic mediums used by Muybridge:

Albumen prints

Yosemite photograph by Muybridge, 1872

Most of Muybridge's landscape photographs, and many other subjects, were printed as albumen paper prints and mounted on paper or card mounts, with a line or two of information printed on the mount. Many of Muybridge's pre-1880s images, including views of San Francisco, were produced as cabinet cards (albumen prints mounted on card) or other commercial formats.


MUYBRIDGE PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS The Sidney D. Markman Collection of Eadweard Muybridge Prints. Photographs of colonial architecture, landscapes, coffee plantations, and daily life in Central America, taken in 1875.

MUYBRIDGE PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS Yosemite: Its Wonders and Its Beauties (1868) by John S. Hittell. Photographs by Eadweard J. Muybridge "Helios".

Muybridge's albums of Central America views, and his publication The Attitudes of Animals in Motion, comprised albumen prints mounted onto the album pages. Other albums were wprepared for private clients.

Glass segments (each bearing a positive image) were assembled and printed onto emusion-coated gelatine (?) to form a gelatine image of the whole set. This was then used to produce a printing plate (of glass rather than stone or metal) for the final collotype paper prints, which had a wide border and included text of basic information.


MUYBRIDGE PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLOTYPES MoMA - The Collection. Eadweard J. Muybridge. (British, 1830-1904).


Cyanotype proof

The University of Pennsylvania sequence camera negative plates were printed initially as cyanotype prints (blue colour) for editing purposes.
Muybridge's cyanotypes are working proofs, the contact prints he made from more the negatives he took at the University of Pennsylvania between 1884 and 1886 while photographing human and animal subjects in motion. Since the original negatives no longer exist, the cyanotypes provide us with the opportunity to see the pictures Muybridge achieved before he edited and cropped them for publication. [From the Photographic History Collection, National Museum of American History. Credit: Eadweard Muybridge (Smithsonian Institution]




Dry plate collodion emulsion glass negatives
Motion sequence photography at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (1884-1886):
Dry plate collodion emulsion glass negatives of various sizes.

Halftone lithography (books)
Muybridge's books Animals in Motion 1899) and The Human Figure in Motion (1901) comprise halftone (dot-screen) copies of his sequence photographs, printed by lithography.


Lantern slides

Bound lantern slide for projection, (c) Kingston Museum

Muybridge's lantern slides vary in size, but are within the range of the standard slide of the period: approx. 4in x 3.25in. Many were produced by creating a reduced size glass copy negative of the subject, and then contact printing this to create a glass transparency (collodion image), which was then bound with a cover glass.



Lithographic sequences for motion synthesis
Silhouette and line drawing sequence pictures drawn over, or based upon, sequence photographs were lithographically printed as zoetrope and praxinoscope strips, and phenakistiscope discs.

Manipulated images

Added clouds

Many of Muybridge's photographic images were manipulated, using several different creative methods. In some cases this was to improve deliniation (in motion subjects where there was some blur), or to better represent a complete sequence of motion. In other cases this manipulation was purely for artistic effect. Methods include:
1) retouching of weak images (instantaneous photographs of animals and humans in motion).
2) combining conventional oil painting/photographic print, as a montage.
3) combining images from more than one motion sequence (to better represent a full sequence, where some exposures had failed).
4) addition of an image of the moon (into landscapes / seascapes).
5) removal of landscape elements (e.g. background mountain) to 'improve' composition.
6) control of the exposure of the sky (using his patented Sky Shade).
7) Superimposing clouds (onto landscapes / seascapes).
8) reproducing photographic sequence images as painted facsimilies, and combining sequences (Zoopraxiscope discs).
9) addition of imaginary elements (e.g. inclusion of watching crowds in Zoopraxiscope disc subjects).

Stereoscopic photographs (stereographs, or stereoviews) were produced from the first days of photography in the 1840s, using the daguerreotype process. By taking two photographs from slightly different horizontal viewpoints (replicating the distance between the human eyes), and then showing each image to the appropriate eye, a simulation of depth is obtained in the photographic scene. Later, stereographs were produced on glass, with a black background, for viewing by reflected light. Translucent glass stereoviews were also produced, which were illuminated from behind. Paper stereo prints were mounted on cardboard mounts. Stereoviews were intended to be viewed in stereoviewers, ranging from hand-held devices to elaborate wooden cabinets.

Stereographs or stereoviews
Muybridge's published stereoviews, produced in the 1860s and 1870s, were albumen paper prints mounted on card. The subjects include San Francisco scenes, the Modoc War, the Yosemite Valley, the Central and Union Pacific Railroads, views of Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Alaska, Mining Scenes, Studies of Trees, Clouds, and many others.

In addition, Muybridge took series of stereoviews of animal movement at Stanford's Palo Alto farm. No stereo prints of these are known to exist, and the only glass negatives known are a few incomplete fragments which were dug up from the garden of Muybridge's last home in Kingston-Upon-Thames, in the 1990s. One of these was published in Eadweard Muybridge, the Kingston Museum Bequest.

The following is the beginnings of a listing of resources concerning Muybridge's stereoscopic images.

The two main online resources are the Lone Mountain Collection, and the Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. The latter can be a little confusing, as the images are in two places on the site, and in addition there is a listing compiled from various sources, plus links from that listing to many stereo images on the Lone Mountain website.

Lone Mountain College Collection of Stereographs by Eadweard Muybridge, 1867-1880
Brought to you by the Online Archive of California (OAC), an initiative of the California Digital Library
Collection Title:
Lone Mountain College Collection of Stereographs by Eadweard Muybridge.
1700 stereographs, 6 albums and 39 oversize prints
Stereograph subjects: San Francisco. Alaska. Vancouver Island. Studies. Central Pacific Railroad. Union Pacific Railroad. The Pacific Coast. Geyser Springs. California Pacific Railroad. The Missions of California. Farralone Islands. A Vintage in California. Valley of the Yosemite. Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mariposa Grove of Mammoth Trees. The Indians of California. The Modoc War. San Francisco and the Bay Area. Isthmus of Panama. Miscellaneous
1727 digital objects
Eadweard Muybridge
The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
Berkeley, California 94720-6000

Guide to the Muybridge's Stereographs of Yosemite Valley, ca. 1867-1872
Views of Yosemite Valley, California (Helios), ca. 1867-1872. 2 stereographs
Helios Flying Studio.
[ Stereo No. 14 ]
Poo-see-nan-chuck-ka (Large Acorn Cache), Cathedral Rocks, 2600 ft. above Valley
[ Stereo No. 126 ]
Abraham Lincoln, 320 ft. high, 54 ft. circumference

and many other Yosemite stereos, listed on adjacent web pages. (See links from lefthand column on the webpage listed above).

Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum
Eadweard J. Muybridge Stereoviews
(12 of Dan Austin's Muybridge Stereoviews, for viewing online free.)
List of C.P.R.R. Muybridge Stereographs:
modified based on New York Public Library, Bancroft Library, and private collections
from combined information from Willumson, Kibbey, Palmquist, Swackhamer, Ryan, National Stereographic Association - Holmes Stereographic Research Library, and others.

Links to images at the California Digital Library Website, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley, "Muybridge (Eadweard), Lone Mountain College Collection of Stereographs"

Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Archive
Muybridge (1 of 4) [53 muybridge stereoviews for viewing free.]

Wet plate collodion glass negatives
Landscape photography, stereoviews, general views of people and other scenes, instantaneous and sequence photography pre-Philadelphia (1884):
Wet plate collodion glass negatives of various sizes up to Mammoth (20 x 24 inches).


Zoopraxiscope discs
The publicly-shown Zoopraxiscope glass discs (created 1879 - c.1886) were produced by using manipulated prints of sequence images as a guide, the image being painted onto the glass disc. One surviving disc, of a horse skeleton, has segments of glass positive, each bearing an actual photographic image of the horse skeleton, glued onto a glass disc support. Also, some small glass positive sequence images which exist have evidence that they were taped together as an anular ring, perhaps as a motion projection experiment; but the period of this experiment is not known, and they would not have produced a usable result in the Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope.

The coloured Zoopraxiscope glass discs (probably never shown publicly) comprise drawings informed by the sequence images. These drawings, arranged in a circle, were used to produce a single glass plate negative. This negative was the used to produce a positive glass disc, and the images then coloured by hand.


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