Recorded music items (CD, LP, music videos)
Motion pictures (16mm, 35mm, DVD, Laserdisc, VHS, CD-Rom, etc.)

Recorded music items (CD, LP, etc)

The Photographer

CBS records. Masterworks. (CD) MK37849

CBS records. Masterworks. (LP)


All that white hair
A Gentleman's honor
And a long white beard
Burns up in fever

And this is artificial moonlight
An artificial sky

Horses in the air
Feet on the ground
Never seen
This picture before

And this is artificial moonlight
An artificial sky

Horses in the air
'Whose baby is this'
Never seen
This picture before

(c) Dunvagen Music Publishers Inc. and Index Music Inc.

Philip Glass's music/theatre piece The Photographer was originally released on vinyl in the 80s, and is still available on a 1990 CD. A somewhat relentless, repetitious score seems to capture very well the obsessional nature of Muybridge and his work. Lots for sale on

Composing the music for a theater piece revolving around the life and work of photographer Eadweard Muybridge must have seemed a natural fit for Philip Glass, as Muybridge's stop action studies of people and animals in motion have a clear visual analogy in Glass repeating musical cells. Scored for his ensemble accompanied by a chamber orchestra, The Photographer is one of the works bridging the gap between his earlier compositions up through Einstein on the Beach and his later pieces for more traditional instrumentation. The unusual feature here is the presence of violinist Paul Zukofsky in what amounts to a soloist's role, his sawing lines often reminding one incongruously of a hoe-down. While the opening vocal version of 'Act I' has an almost too precious and dainty feel, the remainder of the album chugs along at a robust pace familiar to fans of Glass' music. When the final section bursts to life after a lengthy prologue, the brass sputtering, the basslines percolating, one can hardly fail to admire his ability to excite an audience on a visceral level, even as one feels slightly guilty at the ease with which one has been manipulated. ~ Brian Olewnick, All Music Guide [from Spunclub]

Composer Philip Glass's 1982 opera The Photographer is based on Muybridge's murder trial, the libretto including text from the transcript. A promotional music video of an excerpt of the opera dramatized the murder and trial and included a considerable number of Muybridge images.

MP3 download here.

Interview with Philip Glass 1983 HERE.

Philip Glass discusses The Photographer, a theater piece conceived as a play, a concert and a dance in three acts which had recently been released on record. Glass and his ensemble were in town to perform the piece based on the life and work of Eadweard Muybridge. Discussions of technical aspects of composition, traveling, performance, and editing, follows. Interviewers are Russ Jennings and Leslie Roberts.

Muybridge Frames for trombone and piano (1992).
Commissioned by John Kenny with funds made available by the Arts Council of Great Britain. Duration 20 minutes. First performance: John Kenny and Joanna Haratsaris, Reid Concert Hall, Edinburgh, 17.11.92.
George Nicholson, University of Sheffield Dept of Music

This piece was written in 1992 in response to John Kenny's request for a substantial large-scale concert work for trombone and piano. it developed from two points of departure, both drawn from early photographic imagery. The celebrated 1917 publicity photograph of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band is a startling trick shot in which two brass players appear to perform from inside the open grand piano - the slide of Eddie Edward's trombone projects over the end of the keyboard. I began to consider the possibility of musical situations in which the sound of the trombone would effectively be initiated by the piano, and vice versa, and the question of to what extent the indentities of the two instruments could merge. I was also interested in composing a work in which the two players would, to a large extent, develop seperate discourses. Here, the early motion photography of Eadweard Muybridge provided a useful stimulus which led directly to the formulation of the framing device of the title. Just as Muybridge, in his Animal Locomotion collection of 1887 presented movements in discrete photographic images (allowing people to see for themselves whether or not a galloping horse did in fact momentarily lose contact with the ground!), so I imagined certain points in the piece, in which the developing relationship, between the two musical discourses would become explicit, as in the freeze one or other instrument appears to initiate, while the other follows. The work is laid out in one continuous movement in five sections, representing a single cycle of possibilities, departing from synchronicity and then returning to it in the final section. (George Nicholson)

George Nicholson was born in County Durham in 1949 and studied at the University of York with David Blake and Bernard Rands, receiving his doctorate in composition in 1979. For ten years he pursued a freelance career in London before being appointed Lecturer in Music and Director of Composition at Keele University in 1988. In January 1996 he took up the post of Senior Lecturer in Composition at Sheffield University. He is a keen pianist and conductor, is a founder member of the chamber groups Triple Echo and Nomos, and also gives regular recitals with his wife, the soprano Jane Ginsborg.

His list of works includes a flute concerto, commissioned and premiered in 1994 in Zurich by James Galway; a cello concerto (for Moray Welsh) and a chamber concerto, both commissioned by the BBC; three string quartets; the orchestral song-cycle 'Blisworth Tunnel Blues', 'The convergence of the Twain' and '1132' for chamber orchestra; and a variety of chamber works, vocal pieces and piano music.

Listen (Warwick Music) here

A Field of Scarecrows. CD. Includes the track:
* Muybridge Frames - 22'09 (George Nicholson)
A Field Of Scarecrows is dedicated to the memory of the English composer Paul Keenan, who died in 2004. Paul and I had been friends for since we met in the Birmingham School Symphony Orchestra in 1972. Paul was an outstanding clarinettist but also a quite exceptional composer, who achieved his mature identity before the age of twenty, and then continued to work on a small number of exquisite and highly complex scores for the rest of his life. He never achieved - or sought - commercial success, and he died having heard only a small part of his music. The title track of this album was the last piece he wrote for me, and it is undoubtedly one of the most challenging and extraordinary pieces ever composed for trombone and piano.

My duo partner on this album is the pianist composer George Nicholson, with whom I had already intended to release an album of new works for trombone and piano, featuring George's own massive Muybridge Frames. Indeed, this was the original title of the album - but with Paul's approaching death we both agreed that we would re-name the album, as a tribute to Paul. My dear friend John Purser contributed a new Sonata as the opening work of the album; my own short piece Bleaklow Fragment is a personal memento of a day in the Derbyshire Peaks spent with Paul when we were students. [John Kenny?]
Order here

Muybridge - 'Unsupported Transit'

(Genesis Foundation), c.2007.

This project is a cross-genre video opera. OperaGenesis has been working in partnership with Opera North's Dominic Gray to develop this piece about photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge. After initial work at the ROH in early 2007, the project has been rehearsing in Leeds, and a fully staged studio version of the latest draft was performed to an invited audience in Opera North's the new studio theatre in November.

The project is fascinating for its simultaneous and integrated use of live singers, chamber ensemble and video cameras. At present OperaGenesis is discussing with Opera North revisions to the work to create a more compact, accessible version for performance. It is also possible that the piece might have a future directly to screen as a short TV opera (the writer and composer both having worked extensively in television), or even as a radio opera (on the model of Dominic Muldowney's Red Razzamatazz, a Radio 3 commission).


Decoding Skin

Philip Howard (track/s by Michael Finnissy)

Dr Finnissy's website here

Music-related videos

'Good Evening, Major' - music video Watch it on YouTube.

In April of 2010, the band Accordions wrote a song about Eadweard Muybridge's murder of his wife's lover in 1874. Shortly after the song was written, NPR publicized the first ever retrospective of Muybridge's work in Washington D.C. at the Corcoran. They also announced a contest for videos or photos that bring Muybridge into the twenty-first century. Accordions went into the recording studio and contacted a long-time friend and collaborator Brent Aldrich, who is a video artist and photographer. This music video for the song 'Good Evening, Major' is the result.
More details on Muy Blog.

A Gentleman's Honor

Video clip, music by Philip Glass, 1980s, provenance unknown. Modern setting for Muybridge / Larkyns story. On YouTube

Motion pictures (16mm, 35mm, DVD, Laserdisc, VHS, CD-Rom, etc.)

Not yet in any order.

The Origins of Scientific Cinematography

DVD British Universities Film & Video Council, 2006
Running time: 99 mins. col/bw, English, region 0 PAL
(c) IWF Wissen und Medien gGmbH, English version distributed under licence by the British Universities Film & Video Council
A documentary film series directed by Virgilio Tosi. The films complement Tosi's book Cinema Before Cinema, using archive film and original equipment to show how cinematography had its beginnings not in the music hall or the fairground, but in the laboratory, as scientists in the 19th and 20th centuries attempted to find new ways of seeing and measuring the natural world. The three films are:

The Pioneers (1990, 52mins)
Technical Developments around the turn of the century (1992, 17mins)
Early Applications (1993, 30 mins)
[The above is from the jacket text]

The zoopraxiscope on display, c.1990. The Pioneers.

Muybridge is dealt with in two chronological sections of the first film, The Pioneers. These are quite well done, using a good selection of original images, animations, specially filmed portions and other material. There are one or two problems. The parts dealing with the sequence photography by Muybridge and by Marey give the impression that Marey was the first to use multi-viewpoint camera setups, which is misleading. For the Zoopraxiscope sequence, the producers took the trouble to arrange a filming of the original machine at Kingston Museum. The screened picture of the disc being projected is unimpressive (due to a strobing effect - an artefact of the filming shutter and the projection shutter not coinciding) but we also see clear rostrum animations of several of the 12-inch colour discs - although the images are elongated, so not quite as they would have been seen projected with the Zoopraxiscope. More importantly, these are presented as being the images that Muybridge showed in the early 1880s - which is not the case. His early 16-inch b&w discs look very different on the screen, and in fact the colour discs were produced more than a decade later, he was unhappy with them, and no report of these being shown has yet been found. Despite these problems The Pioneers is recommended as on the whole it gives an unhurried, careful treatment of the subjects covered, accurate to the extent of knowledge when they were made - the past 20 years has seen much new research in these areas - and provides a good introduction to the subject of chronophotography. (Now if I can just find time to view the other two films on the disc...)

Flora's film (2003)

Michael Wilson Kinomoto. 16mins. 16mm

In 1873, Eadweard Muybridge succeeded in photographically freezing a horse mid-gallop. One year later, he shot the life out of his wife's lover.

MICHAEL WILSON KINOMOTO's films, videotapes, and installations include Flora's Film (2003), aerial elegy (2003), Turk Street (2000), and Brown (1998) and have been screened widely at festivals in the United States and abroad. Recently, he was an Associate Producer on Steven Okazaki's White Light/Black Rain -- an official selection of the 2007 Sundance Film Festival. He was also a post-production superviser for Okazaki's Academy Award-nominated short documentary, The Mushroom Club. Wilson's own awards include the John Gutmann Memorial Filmmaker Award of Excellence and an honorarium from the Princess Grace Foundation USA. In 2004, he was in residence at the MacDowell Colony where he completed a feature film screenplay.

INTERACTIVE WEB PROJECT [1997] - VIDEO [2000/2004] - Loop

After Muybridge can be called Digital Praxiniscope. Using various series by Eadweard Muybridge (1), the individual images were taken out of any scientific context and situated as motifs in open space. Our intention was to examine what pictures arise in the time and space between the image and the film.

The first adaptation for the internet, After Muybridge V1 - 1997, created a montage of the individual images as a long panorama and then transformed by means of various programs into a Quicktime VR Panorama movie (2). Like in a Praxiniscope, the user was able to control the speed of the movements along the horizontal axis, which at highest speed created the optical illusion of moving image.

Versions 2 and 3 for DVD were created using animation software that can be controlled through programming. The individual images were linearly accelerated along the horizontal axis (except the bird, where we used the vertical axis) to reanimate them. As in a praxinoscope, the accelerated presentation recreates the impression of the "original" time sequence. The intermediate phases and the optical ullusion that arise as a result of the slow acceleration resemble the style of photography influenced by Etienne-Jules Marey (3).

(1) Eadweard Muybridge, Human and Animal Locomotion, 1887.
(2) Quicktime VR was invented by Apple at the end of 1980s to allow users to navigate through virtual space with a mouse and a computer. Using a computer program the individual images are combined to produce a panorama and then manipulated so that the viewer sees the images as an artificial space. This technology requires the individual images as a model, and these were usually produced with a camera on a special tripod that turns around its own axis a number of degrees at a time.
(3) Etienne-Jules Marey:

About SpringerParker
SpringerParker's artworks are subtle and sometimes mysterious stories that are presented in a broad spectrum of media ranging from photography to live performances. The visual expression of the work echoes the intensive study of photography in the early stages of their artistic career. Today the artists freely "scout through sound and images" embracing the collision and intersection of both analog and digital processes in their experimental work. SPs compositions with their highly organic quality are the result of their own way of sculpting and layering of sound material and of the artists particular method to conduct and melt together independent spheres and patterns. Time, transience and memory are recurrent key themes in SPs examinations in which they intertwine abstract expressions with narrative motifs. This work with its unusual visual and acoustic character fascinates and creates a state of contemplation that is noticed by the beholder who always brings along his/her own narratives.

Springer *1972 in Oldenburg, i. H./ Germany
Parker *1971 in Cuxhaven / Germany
SpringerParker live and work in Berlin / Germany.
From 1993 - 2005 SpringerParker were collaborating under the name "candela2"
View clip here

Muybridge Film (1995)

Anne Rees-Mogg. 5 mins B & W Silent 16 mm & video version
Part of SHOOT SHOOT SHOOT. Time and motion study, showing Renny Croft turning a cartwheel from fast to slow motion.

View the film here:


Bio-Morph Encyclopedia

CD-Rom. 4D company, Japan, c.1993

The chronophotographic series of humans and animals in motion by Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) have inspired a significant number of 20th century experimental artists, beginning with figures like Marcel Duchamp and Umberto Boccioni, and including prominent filmakers (Dziga Veyrov, Jean-Luc Godard) and videomakers (George Snow, Gabor Body). This "muybridgian" tradition has mostly been connected with modernist avantage, with its urge to stop the "mystifying" flow of images, and to establish a new "frozen" space for distanciation and analysis. The remarkable CD-ROM artwork Biomorph Encyclopedia by Nobuhiro Shibayama clearly stands out from this tradition. Shibayama's goal is less the deconstruction of movement in itself than the recreation of a new synthetic experience; he combines elements from different cultural sorces, including the creative use of contemporary morphing software. The result is surreal and bizarre. The user is invited to make choices from inventories of Muybridge's still images.
Reviewed by Erkki Huhtamo, Professor of media studies, University of Lapland (Rovaniemi, Finland).

"Biomorph Encyclopedia is a beautiful and provocative work for CD-ROM that explores some new art possibilities made possible by new technologies."
Stephen Wilson, San Francisco, CA (Leonardo Electronic Almanac Vol.2 No.12)

Eadweard Muybridge: Motion Studies

Laserdisc. Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts.

Muybridge's Zoopraxiscope discs are just one example of numerous motion picture disc formats from the past. This Laserdic (CAV format) Eadweard Muybridge: Motion Studies was produced in 1990 by the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. I have never seen the contents, but it included animations of Muybridge images, and a voiceover by an actor playing Muybridge. The cover notes are yet another example of the confusion that has always existed concerning exactly what it was that Muybridge showed on the screen, in motion. The main notes (apparently by the producer James Sheldon) state: "[he] developed a way to project his images and synthesize motion." In the following text by the disc's producer Robert Stein, we read " frustrated Muybridge must have been since he lacked the technology to display the photos in continuous motion." This apparent contradiction is typical of publications about Muybridge and his work.

The Laserdisc was published (along with a catalogue) in conjunction with the exhibition Motion and Document - Sequence and Time: Eadweard Muybridge and Contemporary American Photography, at the Addison Gallery of American Art.

Eadweard Muybridge: Women in Motion

Eadweard Muybridge: Women in Motion

On-Line Entertainment, for Commodore International CDTV ["Commodore Dynamic Total Vision"] Multimedia system, c.1991
Animated sequences from Animal Locomotion.

From the original publicity:

Eadweard Muybridge: Women In Motion.
Eadweard Muybridge's historic photographs are one of the great monuments of 19th Century photography and have never been superseded. The technology of the Amiga CDTV brings these images to life. This product gives a unique insight into the moving form. You can examine each frame, print it out, or load it into an art package and work with it.

And from the same publisher:

Eadweard Muybridge: Animals In Motion.
Animals in Motion is an interactive multimedia reference title designed for anyone interested in Animation, Art or Photography. This title lets you examine, manipulate and export a huge range of images captured by film pioneer Eadweard Muybridge at the turn of the century. These are the very same images used by animators such as Disney as the basis of their work.

En train de danser sur une musique de M. Muybridge (1990)

(Ballando su una musica di M. Muybridge), short film by Michel De Gagné, Michel Gélinas. 12 minutes.

No further information

Le Cheval de Fer (1984)

Directed by: Gérald FRYDMAN, Pierre LEVIE. Country: BELGIUM, FRANCE. Selection: En compétition. Awards: Palme d'Or - Short Film, 1984.
Credits: Gérald FRYDMAN - Director, Script and Dialogue. Claude LAMBERT - Animation. Alain PIERRE - Music. Bruno ZINCONE - Film Editor. Pierre LEVIE - Director. Etienne DEBRUYNE - Animation. Atelier FORSTER - Animation. Michèle MAQUET - Mixing.

The story of the bet of Leland Stanford, railway tycoon, on horse-racing. He calls upon the services of photographer Edweard Muybridge who invents a system to analyse the movement.

Filming Muybridge (1980 or 1981).
Student film directed by Jean-Louis Gonnet.
No further information at present.

Eadweard Muybridge, Zoopraxographer (1974: 1975)
Running Time: 60 Minutes. Release Year: 1975. Country: US. 60 minutes. Cast: Dean Stockwell (Narrator). Genre: Documentary

Eadweard Muybridge, Zoopraxographer
Regie: Thom Andersen. Jahr: 1974. Weitere Personen Darsteller: Anje Bos, Sharon Hagen. Kamera: Doug Ryan. Kameraassistenz: Mark Whitney. Musik: Michael Cohen. Ton: James McCormac. Trickaufnahmen: Thom Andersen, Don Baker, Rocco Damiano, Morgan Fisher, Alan Harding, Marlyn O'Conner. Verleih: Freunde der Deutschen Kinemathek. Produktionsland United States of America (USA). Dauer 01:00:00. Material/Farbe: 16mm.

Eadweard Muybridge, Zoopraxographer is a brilliant, innovative film about the origins of cinema and its most famed forefather, Muybridge. Filmmaker and Cal Arts professor Thom Andersen, over the course of ten years, animated Muybridge's photographic studies of human and animal gesture and movement. Interpolated with these incredible sequences are biographical sections detailing Muybridge's personal and professional struggles, narrated by Dean Stockwell. The result is a film that investigates the history of cinema while it traces its development from pre-cinematic technologies. Drawing parallels between Muybridge's reclusive lifestyle and genius and the explosive, very public birth of cinema, Eadweard Muybridge manages to be both a film about history and a genuine work of art. ~ Brian Whitener, All Movie Guide

One of the best essay films ever made on a cinematic subject, Thom Andersen's remarkable and sadly neglected hour-long documentary (1974) adroitly combines biography, history, film theory, and philosophical reflection. Muybridge's photographic studies of animal locomotion in the 1870s were a major forerunner of movies; even more interesting are his subsequent studies of diverse people, photographed against neutral backgrounds. Andersen's perspectives on Muybridge are multifaceted and often surprising (characteristically, the film's opening quotation is from Mao), and he presents Muybridge's photographic sequences in various ways to spell out the many meanings of this fascinating precinematic work. Jonathan Rosenbaum, Chicago Reader

"'s typical of Andersen's work: insightful, opinionated, painstakingly researched and never short of fascinating." -

A useful, recent (2007) blog review here:

Review in: September 1976 issue, Monthly Film Bulletin, (British Film Institute).

US Department of Defense. PIN 25029

It Started With Muybridge (1965)

Early concepts of photographic instrumentation, invented by Edward Muybidge, converted into precise instrumentation systems used in RDT and E programs.

Online version of 16mm film.
View the film here:

Frozen Images (1961)
Dir: D. Gordon and D. Rowley. [OR: Gordon Rowley]. Dist: Grasshopper Group. B&W. 5 mins. Silent.

Animation of serial photographs taken by E. Muybridge, one of the pioneers of 'stop' photography. Could be of use to societies giving an 'Introduction to Movies' programme.
Federation of Film Societies Sixteen Millimetre Viewing Sessions 1963 20th-21st April (London)

Report of a film being made, 1923.

Bridgeport Telegram, 3 February 1923, Bridgeport, Connecticut. "A film has been made of these experiments which proves that to Muybridge belongs the credit of inventing the motion....."

(Films etc are listed above)

See also VIDEOS links here and MOVIES here